# NAME

guestfish - the guest filesystem shell

# SYNOPSIS

 guestfish [--options] [commands]

guestfish

guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img

guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img -m dev[:mountpoint]

guestfish -d libvirt-domain

guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img -i

guestfish -d libvirt-domain -i

# WARNING

Using guestfish in write mode on live virtual machines, or concurrently with other disk editing tools, can be dangerous, potentially causing disk corruption. The virtual machine must be shut down before you use this command, and disk images must not be edited concurrently.

Use the --ro (read-only) option to use guestfish safely if the disk image or virtual machine might be live. You may see strange or inconsistent results if running concurrently with other changes, but with this option you won't risk disk corruption.

# DESCRIPTION

Guestfish is a shell and command-line tool for examining and modifying virtual machine filesystems. It uses libguestfs and exposes all of the functionality of the guestfs API, see guestfs(3).

Guestfish gives you structured access to the libguestfs API, from shell scripts or the command line or interactively. If you want to rescue a broken virtual machine image, you should look at the virt-rescue(1) command.

# EXAMPLES

 $guestfish Welcome to guestfish, the guest filesystem shell for editing virtual machine filesystems. Type: 'help' for a list of commands 'man' to read the manual 'quit' to quit the shell ><fs> add-ro disk.img ><fs> run ><fs> list-filesystems /dev/sda1: ext4 /dev/vg_guest/lv_root: ext4 /dev/vg_guest/lv_swap: swap ><fs> mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / ><fs> cat /etc/fstab # /etc/fstab # Created by anaconda [...] ><fs> exit ## From shell scripts Create a new /etc/motd file in a guest or disk image:  guestfish <<_EOF_ add disk.img run mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / write /etc/motd "Welcome, new users" _EOF_ List the LVM logical volumes in a disk image:  guestfish -a disk.img --ro <<_EOF_ run lvs _EOF_ List all the filesystems in a disk image:  guestfish -a disk.img --ro <<_EOF_ run list-filesystems _EOF_ ## On one command line Update /etc/resolv.conf in a guest:  guestfish \ add disk.img : run : mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / : \ write /etc/resolv.conf "nameserver 1.2.3.4" Edit /boot/grub/grub.conf interactively:  guestfish --rw --add disk.img \ --mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root \ --mount /dev/sda1:/boot \ edit /boot/grub/grub.conf ## Mount disks automatically Use the -i option to automatically mount the disks from a virtual machine:  guestfish --ro -a disk.img -i cat /etc/group guestfish --ro -d libvirt-domain -i cat /etc/group Another way to edit /boot/grub/grub.conf interactively is:  guestfish --rw -a disk.img -i edit /boot/grub/grub.conf ## As a script interpreter Create a 100MB disk containing an ext2-formatted partition:  #!/usr/bin/guestfish -f sparse test1.img 100M run part-disk /dev/sda mbr mkfs ext2 /dev/sda1 ## Start with a prepared disk Create a 1G disk called test1.img containing a single ext2-formatted partition:  guestfish -N fs To list what is available do:  guestfish -N help | less ## Remote drives Access a remote disk using ssh:  guestfish -a ssh://example.com/path/to/disk.img ## Remote control  eval "guestfish --listen" guestfish --remote add-ro disk.img guestfish --remote run guestfish --remote lvs # OPTIONS --help Displays general help on options. -h --cmd-help Lists all available guestfish commands. -h CMD --cmd-help CMD Displays detailed help on a single command cmd. -a IMAGE --add IMAGE Add a block device or virtual machine image to the shell. The format of the disk image is auto-detected. To override this and force a particular format use the --format=.. option. Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the add command, with readonly:true if the --ro flag was given, and with format:... if the --format=... flag was given. -a URI --add URI Add a remote disk. See "ADDING REMOTE STORAGE". --blocksize=512 --blocksize=4096 --blocksize This parameter sets the sector size of the disk image. It affects all explicitly added subsequent disks after this parameter. Using --blocksize with no argument switches the disk sector size to the default value which is usually 512 bytes. See also "guestfs_add_drive_opts" in guestfs(3). -c URI --connect URI When used in conjunction with the -d option, this specifies the libvirt URI to use. The default is to use the default libvirt connection. --csh If using the --listen option and a csh-like shell, use this option. See section "REMOTE CONTROL AND CSH" below. -d LIBVIRT-DOMAIN --domain LIBVIRT-DOMAIN Add disks from the named libvirt domain. If the --ro option is also used, then any libvirt domain can be used. However in write mode, only libvirt domains which are shut down can be named here. Domain UUIDs can be used instead of names. Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the add-domain command, with readonly:true if the --ro flag was given, and with format:... if the --format=... flag was given. --echo-keys When prompting for keys and passphrases, guestfish normally turns echoing off so you cannot see what you are typing. If you are not worried about Tempest attacks and there is no one else in the room you can specify this flag to see what you are typing. -f FILE --file FILE Read commands from FILE. To write pure guestfish scripts, use:  #!/usr/bin/guestfish -f --format=raw|qcow2|.. --format The default for the -a option is to auto-detect the format of the disk image. Using this forces the disk format for -a options which follow on the command line. Using --format with no argument switches back to auto-detection for subsequent -a options. For example:  guestfish --format=raw -a disk.img forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img.  guestfish --format=raw -a disk.img --format -a another.img forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img and reverts to auto-detection for another.img. If you have untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should use this option to specify the disk format. This avoids a possible security problem with malicious guests (CVE-2010-3851). See also "add". -i --inspector Using virt-inspector(1) code, inspect the disks looking for an operating system and mount filesystems as they would be mounted on the real virtual machine. Typical usage is either:  guestfish -d myguest -i (for an inactive libvirt domain called myguest), or:  guestfish --ro -d myguest -i (for active domains, readonly), or specify the block device directly:  guestfish --rw -a /dev/Guests/MyGuest -i Note that the command line syntax changed slightly over older versions of guestfish. You can still use the old syntax:  guestfish [--ro] -i disk.img guestfish [--ro] -i libvirt-domain Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the inspect-os command and then using other commands to mount the filesystems that were found. --key SELECTOR Specify a key for LUKS, to automatically open a LUKS device when using the inspection. ID can be either the libguestfs device name, or the UUID of the LUKS device. --key ID:key:KEY_STRING Use the specified KEY_STRING as passphrase. --key ID:file:FILENAME Read the passphrase from FILENAME. --keys-from-stdin Read key or passphrase parameters from stdin. The default is to try to read passphrases from the user by opening /dev/tty. If there are multiple encrypted devices then you may need to supply multiple keys on stdin, one per line. --listen Fork into the background and listen for remote commands. See section "REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET" below. --live Connect to a live virtual machine. (Experimental, see "ATTACHING TO RUNNING DAEMONS" in guestfs(3)). -m dev[:mountpoint[:options[:fstype]]] --mount dev[:mountpoint[:options[:fstype]]] Mount the named partition or logical volume on the given mountpoint. If the mountpoint is omitted, it defaults to /. You have to mount something on / before most commands will work. If any -m or --mount options are given, the guest is automatically launched. If you don’t know what filesystems a disk image contains, you can either run guestfish without this option, then list the partitions, filesystems and LVs available (see "list-partitions", "list-filesystems" and "lvs" commands), or you can use the virt-filesystems(1) program. The third (and rarely used) part of the mount parameter is the list of mount options used to mount the underlying filesystem. If this is not given, then the mount options are either the empty string or ro (the latter if the --ro flag is used). By specifying the mount options, you override this default choice. Probably the only time you would use this is to enable ACLs and/or extended attributes if the filesystem can support them:  -m /dev/sda1:/:acl,user_xattr Using this flag is equivalent to using the mount-options command. The fourth part of the parameter is the filesystem driver to use, such as ext3 or ntfs. This is rarely needed, but can be useful if multiple drivers are valid for a filesystem (eg: ext2 and ext3), or if libguestfs misidentifies a filesystem. --network Enable QEMU user networking in the guest. -N [FILENAME=]TYPE --new [FILENAME=]TYPE -N help Prepare a fresh disk image formatted as TYPE. This is an alternative to the -a option: whereas -a adds an existing disk, -N creates a preformatted disk with a filesystem and adds it. See "PREPARED DISK IMAGES" below. -n --no-sync Disable autosync. This is enabled by default. See the discussion of autosync in the guestfs(3) manpage. --no-dest-paths Don’t tab-complete paths on the guest filesystem. It is useful to be able to hit the tab key to complete paths on the guest filesystem, but this causes extra "hidden" guestfs calls to be made, so this option is here to allow this feature to be disabled. --pipe-error If writes fail to pipe commands (see "PIPES" below), then the command returns an error. The default (also for historical reasons) is to ignore such errors so that:  ><fs> command_with_lots_of_output | head doesn't give an error. --progress-bars Enable progress bars, even when guestfish is used non-interactively. Progress bars are enabled by default when guestfish is used as an interactive shell. --no-progress-bars Disable progress bars. --remote --remote=PID Send remote commands to $GUESTFISH_PID or pid. See section "REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET" below.

-r
--ro

This changes the -a, -d and -m options so that disks are added and mounts are done read-only.

The option must always be used if the disk image or virtual machine might be running, and is generally recommended in cases where you don't need write access to the disk.

Note that prepared disk images created with -N are not affected by this option. Also commands like add are not affected - you have to specify the readonly:true option explicitly if you need it.

--selinux

This option is provided for backwards compatibility and does nothing.

-v
--verbose

Enable very verbose messages. This is particularly useful if you find a bug.

-V
--version

Display the guestfish / libguestfs version number and exit.

-w
--rw

This changes the -a, -d and -m options so that disks are added and mounts are done read-write.

See "OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE" below.

-x

Echo each command before executing it.

# COMMANDS ON COMMAND LINE

Any additional (non-option) arguments are treated as commands to execute.

Commands to execute should be separated by a colon (:), where the colon is a separate parameter. Thus:

 guestfish cmd [args...] : cmd [args...] : cmd [args...] ...

If there are no additional arguments, then we enter a shell, either an interactive shell with a prompt (if the input is a terminal) or a non-interactive shell.

In either command line mode or non-interactive shell, the first command that gives an error causes the whole shell to exit. In interactive mode (with a prompt) if a command fails, you can continue to enter commands.

Note that arguments of the commands will be considered as guestfish options if they start with a dash (-): you can always separate the guestfish options and the rest of the commands (with their arguments) using a double dash (--). For example:

 guestfish -- disk_create overlay.qcow2 qcow2 -1 backingfile:image.img

# USING launch (OR run)

As with guestfs(3), you must first configure your guest by adding disks, then launch it, then mount any disks you need, and finally issue actions/commands. So the general order of the day is:

• launch (aka run)

• mount or -m/--mount

• any other commands

run is a synonym for launch. You must launch (or run) your guest before mounting or performing any other commands.

The only exception is that if any of the -i, -m, --mount, -N or --new options were given then run is done automatically, simply because guestfish can't perform the action you asked for without doing this.

# OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE

The guestfish, guestmount(1) and virt-rescue(1) options --ro and --rw affect whether the other command line options -a, -c, -d, -i and -m open disk images read-only or for writing.

In libguestfs ≤ 1.10, guestfish, guestmount and virt-rescue defaulted to opening disk images supplied on the command line for write. To open a disk image read-only you have to do -a image --ro.

This matters: If you accidentally open a live VM disk image writable then you will cause irreversible disk corruption.

In a future libguestfs we intend to change the default the other way. Disk images will be opened read-only. You will have to either specify guestfish --rw, guestmount --rw, virt-rescue --rw, or change the configuration file in order to get write access for disk images specified by those other command line options.

This version of guestfish, guestmount and virt-rescue has a --rw option which does nothing (it is already the default). However it is highly recommended that you use this option to indicate that you need write access, and prepare your scripts for the day when this option will be required for write access.

Note: This does not affect commands like "add" and "mount", or any other libguestfs program apart from guestfish and guestmount.

# QUOTING

You can quote ordinary parameters using either single or double quotes. For example:

 add "file with a space.img"

rm '/file name'

rm '/"'

A few commands require a list of strings to be passed. For these, use a whitespace-separated list, enclosed in quotes. Strings containing whitespace to be passed through must be enclosed in single quotes. A literal single quote must be escaped with a backslash.

 vgcreate VG "/dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1"
command "/bin/echo 'foo      bar'"
command "/bin/echo \'foo\'"

## ESCAPE SEQUENCES IN DOUBLE QUOTED ARGUMENTS

In double-quoted arguments (only) use backslash to insert special characters:

\a

\b

Backspace character.

\f

Form feed character.

\n

Newline character.

\r

Carriage return character.

\t

Horizontal tab character.

\v

Vertical tab character.

\"

A literal double quote character.

\ooo

A character with octal value ooo. There must be precisely 3 octal digits (unlike C).

\xhh

A character with hex value hh. There must be precisely 2 hex digits.

In the current implementation \000 and \x00 cannot be used in strings.

\\

A literal backslash character.

# OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

Some commands take optional arguments. These arguments appear in this documentation as [argname:..]. You can use them as in these examples:

 add filename

add filename format:qcow2 readonly:false

Each optional argument can appear at most once. All optional arguments must appear after the required ones.

# NUMBERS

This section applies to all commands which can take integers as parameters.

## SIZE SUFFIX

When the command takes a parameter measured in bytes, you can use one of the following suffixes to specify kilobytes, megabytes and larger sizes:

k or K or KiB

The size in kilobytes (multiplied by 1024).

KB

The size in SI 1000 byte units.

M or MiB

The size in megabytes (multiplied by 1048576).

MB

The size in SI 1000000 byte units.

G or GiB

The size in gigabytes (multiplied by 2**30).

GB

The size in SI 10**9 byte units.

T or TiB

The size in terabytes (multiplied by 2**40).

TB

The size in SI 10**12 byte units.

P or PiB

The size in petabytes (multiplied by 2**50).

PB

The size in SI 10**15 byte units.

E or EiB

The size in exabytes (multiplied by 2**60).

EB

The size in SI 10**18 byte units.

Z or ZiB

The size in zettabytes (multiplied by 2**70).

ZB

The size in SI 10**21 byte units.

Y or YiB

The size in yottabytes (multiplied by 2**80).

YB

The size in SI 10**24 byte units.

For example:

 truncate-size /file 1G

would truncate the file to 1 gigabyte.

Be careful because a few commands take sizes in kilobytes or megabytes (eg. the parameter to "memsize" is specified in megabytes already). Adding a suffix will probably not do what you expect.

For specifying the radix (base) use the C convention: 0 to prefix an octal number or 0x to prefix a hexadecimal number. For example:

 1234      decimal number 1234
02322     octal number, equivalent to decimal 1234
0x4d2     hexadecimal number, equivalent to decimal 1234

When using the chmod command, you almost always want to specify an octal number for the mode, and you must prefix it with 0 (unlike the Unix chmod(1) program):

 chmod 0777 /public  # OK
chmod 777 /public   # WRONG! This is mode 777 decimal = 01411 octal.

Commands that return numbers usually print them in decimal, but some commands print numbers in other radices (eg. umask prints the mode in octal, preceded by 0).

# WILDCARDS AND GLOBBING

Neither guestfish nor the underlying guestfs API performs wildcard expansion (globbing) by default. So for example the following will not do what you expect:

 rm-rf /home/*

Assuming you don’t have a directory called literally /home/* then the above command will return an error.

To perform wildcard expansion, use the glob command.

 glob rm-rf /home/*

runs rm-rf on each path that matches (ie. potentially running the command many times), equivalent to:

 rm-rf /home/jim
rm-rf /home/joe
rm-rf /home/mary

glob only works on simple guest paths and not on device names.

If you have several parameters, each containing a wildcard, then glob will perform a Cartesian product.

Any line which starts with a # character is treated as a comment and ignored. The # can optionally be preceded by whitespace, but not by a command. For example:

 # this is a comment
# this is a comment
foo # NOT a comment

Blank lines are also ignored.

# RUNNING COMMANDS LOCALLY

Any line which starts with a ! character is treated as a command sent to the local shell (/bin/sh or whatever system(3) uses). For example:

 !mkdir local
tgz-out /remote local/remote-data.tar.gz

will create a directory local on the host, and then export the contents of /remote on the mounted filesystem to local/remote-data.tar.gz. (See tgz-out).

To change the local directory, use the lcd command. !cd will have no effect, due to the way that subprocesses work in Unix.

## LOCAL COMMANDS WITH INLINE EXECUTION

If a line starts with <! then the shell command is executed (as for !), but subsequently any output (stdout) of the shell command is parsed and executed as guestfish commands.

Thus you can use shell script to construct arbitrary guestfish commands which are then parsed by guestfish.

For example it is tedious to create a sequence of files (eg. /foo.1 through /foo.100) using guestfish commands alone. However this is simple if we use a shell script to create the guestfish commands for us:

 <! for n in seq 1 100; do echo write /foo.$n$n; done

or with names like /foo.001:

 <! for n in seq 1 100; do printf "write /foo.%03d %d\n" $n$n; done

When using guestfish interactively it can be helpful to just run the shell script first (ie. remove the initial < character so it is just an ordinary ! local command), see what guestfish commands it would run, and when you are happy with those prepend the < character to run the guestfish commands for real.

# PIPES

Use command <space> | command to pipe the output of the first command (a guestfish command) to the second command (any host command). For example:

 cat /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print }' (where cat is the guestfish cat command, but awk is the host awk program). The above command would list all accounts in the guest filesystem which have UID 0, ie. root accounts including backdoors. Other examples:  hexdump /bin/ls | head list-devices | tail -1 tgz-out / - | tar ztf - The space before the pipe symbol is required, any space after the pipe symbol is optional. Everything after the pipe symbol is just passed straight to the host shell, so it can contain redirections, globs and anything else that makes sense on the host side. To use a literal argument which begins with a pipe symbol, you have to quote it, eg:  echo "|" # HOME DIRECTORIES If a parameter starts with the character ~ then the tilde may be expanded as a home directory path (either ~ for the current user's home directory, or ~user for another user). Note that home directory expansion happens for users known on the host, not in the guest filesystem. To use a literal argument which begins with a tilde, you have to quote it, eg:  echo "~" # ENCRYPTED DISKS Libguestfs has some support for Linux guests encrypted according to the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) standard, which includes nearly all whole disk encryption systems used by modern Linux guests, and Windows BitLocker. Identify encrypted block devices and partitions using "vfs-type":  ><fs> vfs-type /dev/sda2 crypto_LUKS or:  ><fs> vfs-type /dev/sda2 BitLocker Then open those devices using "cryptsetup-open". This creates a device-mapper device called /dev/mapper/name.  ><fs> cryptsetup-open /dev/sda2 name Enter key or passphrase ("key"): <enter the passphrase> For Linux guests you have to tell LVM to scan for volume groups on the newly created mapper device:  vgscan vg-activate-all true The filesystems or logical volumes can now be mounted in the usual way. Before closing an encrypted device you must unmount any logical volumes on it and deactivate the volume groups by calling vg-activate false VG on each one. Then you can close the mapper device:  vg-activate false /dev/VG cryptsetup-close /dev/mapper/name # WINDOWS PATHS If a path is prefixed with win: then you can use Windows-style drive letters and paths (with some limitations). The following commands are equivalent:  file /WINDOWS/system32/config/system.LOG file win:\windows\system32\config\system.log file WIN:C:\Windows\SYSTEM32\CONFIG\SYSTEM.LOG The parameter is rewritten "behind the scenes" by looking up the position where the drive is mounted, prepending that to the path, changing all backslash characters to forward slash, then resolving the result using "case-sensitive-path". For example if the E: drive was mounted on /e then the parameter might be rewritten like this:  win:e:\foo\bar => /e/FOO/bar This only works in argument positions that expect a path. # UPLOADING AND DOWNLOADING FILES For commands such as upload, download, tar-in, tar-out and others which upload from or download to a local file, you can use the special filename - to mean "from stdin" or "to stdout". For example:  upload - /foo reads stdin and creates from that a file /foo in the disk image, and:  tar-out /etc - | tar tf - writes the tarball to stdout and then pipes that into the external "tar" command (see "PIPES"). When using - to read from stdin, the input is read up to the end of stdin. You can also use a special "heredoc"-like syntax to read up to some arbitrary end marker:  upload -<<END /foo input line 1 input line 2 input line 3 END Any string of characters can be used instead of END. The end marker must appear on a line of its own, without any preceding or following characters (not even spaces). Note that the -<< syntax only applies to parameters used to upload local files (so-called "FileIn" parameters in the generator). # EXIT ON ERROR BEHAVIOUR By default, guestfish will ignore any errors when in interactive mode (ie. taking commands from a human over a tty), and will exit on the first error in non-interactive mode (scripts, commands given on the command line). If you prefix a command with a - character, then that command will not cause guestfish to exit, even if that (one) command returns an error. # REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET Guestfish can be remote-controlled over a socket. This is useful particularly in shell scripts where you want to make several different changes to a filesystem, but you don't want the overhead of starting up a guestfish process each time. Start a guestfish server process using:  eval "guestfish --listen" and then send it commands by doing:  guestfish --remote cmd [...] To cause the server to exit, send it the exit command:  guestfish --remote exit Note that the server will normally exit if there is an error in a command. You can change this in the usual way. See section "EXIT ON ERROR BEHAVIOUR". ## CONTROLLING MULTIPLE GUESTFISH PROCESSES The eval statement sets the environment variable $GUESTFISH_PID, which is how the --remote option knows where to send the commands. You can have several guestfish listener processes running using:

 eval "guestfish --listen"
pid1=$GUESTFISH_PID eval "guestfish --listen" pid2=$GUESTFISH_PID
...
guestfish --remote=$pid1 cmd guestfish --remote=$pid2 cmd

## REMOTE CONTROL AND CSH

When using csh-like shells (csh, tcsh etc) you have to add the --csh option:

 eval "guestfish --listen --csh"

## REMOTE CONTROL DETAILS

Remote control happens over a Unix domain socket called /tmp/.guestfish-$UID/socket-$PID, where $UID is the effective user ID of the process, and $PID is the process ID of the server.

Guestfish client and server versions must match exactly.

Older versions of guestfish were vulnerable to CVE-2013-4419 (see "CVE-2013-4419" in guestfs(3)). This is fixed in the current version.

## USING REMOTE CONTROL ROBUSTLY FROM SHELL SCRIPTS

From Bash, you can use the following code which creates a guestfish instance, correctly quotes the command line, handles failure to start, and cleans up guestfish when the script exits:

 #!/bin/bash -

set -e

guestfish[0]="guestfish"
guestfish[1]="--listen"
guestfish[2]="--ro"
guestfish[3]="-a"
guestfish[4]="disk.img"

GUESTFISH_PID=
eval $("${guestfish[@]}")
if [ -z "$GUESTFISH_PID" ]; then echo "error: guestfish didn't start up, see error messages above" exit 1 fi cleanup_guestfish () { guestfish --remote -- exit >/dev/null 2>&1 ||: } trap cleanup_guestfish EXIT ERR guestfish --remote -- run # ... ## REMOTE CONTROL DOES NOT WORK WITH -a ETC. OPTIONS Options such as -a, --add, -N, --new etc don’t interact properly with remote support. They are processed locally, and not sent through to the remote guestfish. In particular this won't do what you expect:  guestfish --remote --add disk.img Don’t use these options. Use the equivalent commands instead, eg:  guestfish --remote add-drive disk.img or:  guestfish --remote ><fs> add disk.img ## REMOTE CONTROL RUN COMMAND HANGING Using the run (or launch) command remotely in a command substitution context hangs, ie. don't do (note the backquotes):  a=guestfish --remote run Since the run command produces no output on stdout, this is not useful anyway. For further information see https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=592910. # PREPARED DISK IMAGES Use the -N [filename=]type or --new [filename=]type parameter to select one of a set of preformatted disk images that guestfish can make for you to save typing. This is particularly useful for testing purposes. This option is used instead of the -a option, and like -a can appear multiple times (and can be mixed with -a). The new disk is called test1.img for the first -N, test2.img for the second and so on. Existing files in the current directory are overwritten. You can use a different filename by specifying filename= before the type (see examples below). The type briefly describes how the disk should be sized, partitioned, how filesystem(s) should be created, and how content should be added. Optionally the type can be followed by extra parameters, separated by : (colon) characters. For example, -N fs creates a default 1G, sparsely-allocated disk, containing a single partition, with the partition formatted as ext2. -N fs:ext4:2G is the same, but for an ext4 filesystem on a 2GB disk instead. Note that the prepared filesystem is not mounted. You would usually have to use the mount /dev/sda1 / command or add the -m /dev/sda1 option. If any -N or --new options are given, the libguestfs appliance is automatically launched. ## EXAMPLES Create a 1G disk with an ext4-formatted partition, called test1.img in the current directory:  guestfish -N fs:ext4 Create a 32MB disk with a VFAT-formatted partition, and mount it:  guestfish -N fs:vfat:32M -m /dev/sda1 Create a blank 200MB disk:  guestfish -N disk:200M Create a blank 200MB disk called blankdisk.img (instead of test1.img):  guestfish -N blankdisk.img=disk:200M ## -N disk - create a blank disk guestfish -N [filename=]disk[:size] Create a blank disk, size 1G (by default). The default size can be changed by supplying an optional parameter. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value size 1G the size of the disk image ## -N part - create a partitioned disk guestfish -N [filename=]part[:size[:partition]] Create a disk with a single partition. By default the size of the disk is 1G (the available space in the partition will be a tiny bit smaller) and the partition table will be MBR (old DOS-style). These defaults can be changed by supplying optional parameters. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value size 1G the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type ## -N fs - create a filesystem guestfish -N [filename=]fs[:filesystem[:size[:partition]]] Create a disk with a single partition, with the partition containing an empty filesystem. This defaults to creating a 1G disk (the available space in the filesystem will be a tiny bit smaller) with an MBR (old DOS-style) partition table and an ext2 filesystem. These defaults can be changed by supplying optional parameters. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value filesystem ext2 the type of filesystem to use size 1G the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type ## -N lv - create a disk with logical volume guestfish -N [filename=]lv[:name[:size[:partition]]] Create a disk with a single partition, set up the partition as an LVM2 physical volume, and place a volume group and logical volume on there. This defaults to creating a 1G disk with the VG and LV called /dev/VG/LV. You can change the name of the VG and LV by supplying an alternate name as the first optional parameter. Note this does not create a filesystem. Use 'lvfs' to do that. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value name /dev/VG/LV the name of the VG and LV to use size 1G the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type ## -N lvfs - create a disk with logical volume and filesystem guestfish -N [filename=]lvfs[:name[:filesystem[:size[:partition]]]] Create a disk with a single partition, set up the partition as an LVM2 physical volume, and place a volume group and logical volume on there. Then format the LV with a filesystem. This defaults to creating a 1G disk with the VG and LV called /dev/VG/LV, with an ext2 filesystem. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value name /dev/VG/LV the name of the VG and LV to use filesystem ext2 the type of filesystem to use size 1G the size of the disk image partition mbr partition table type ## -N bootroot - create a boot and root filesystem guestfish -N [filename=]bootroot[:bootfs[:rootfs[:size[:bootsize[:partition]]]]] Create a disk with two partitions, for boot and root filesystem. Format the two filesystems independently. There are several optional parameters which control the exact layout and filesystem types. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value bootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for boot rootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for root size 1G the size of the disk image bootsize 128M the size of the boot filesystem partition mbr partition table type ## -N bootrootlv - create a boot and root filesystem using LVM guestfish -N [filename=]bootrootlv[:name[:bootfs[:rootfs[:size[:bootsize[:partition]]]]]] This is the same as bootroot but the root filesystem (only) is placed on a logical volume, named by default /dev/VG/LV. There are several optional parameters which control the exact layout. The optional parameters are:  Name Default value name /dev/VG/LV the name of the VG and LV for root bootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for boot rootfs ext2 the type of filesystem to use for root size 1G the size of the disk image bootsize 128M the size of the boot filesystem partition mbr partition table type # ADDING REMOTE STORAGE For API-level documentation on this topic, see "guestfs_add_drive_opts" in guestfs(3) and "REMOTE STORAGE" in guestfs(3). On the command line, you can use the -a option to add network block devices using a URI-style format, for example:  guestfish -a ssh://root@example.com/disk.img URIs cannot be used with the "add" command. The equivalent command using the API directly is:  ><fs> add /disk.img protocol:ssh server:tcp:example.com username:root The possible -a URI formats are described below. ## -a disk.img ## -a file:///path/to/disk.img Add the local disk image (or device) called disk.img. ## -a ftp://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img ## -a ftps://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img ## -a http://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img ## -a https://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img ## -a tftp://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img Add a disk located on a remote FTP, HTTP or TFTP server. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add /disk.img protocol:(ftp|...) server:tcp:example.com ## -a gluster://example.com[:port]/volname/image Add a disk image located on GlusterFS storage. The server is the one running glusterd, and may be localhost. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add volname/image protocol:gluster server:tcp:example.com ## -a iscsi://example.com[:port]/target-iqn-name[/lun] Add a disk located on an iSCSI server. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add target-iqn-name/lun protocol:iscsi server:tcp:example.com ## -a nbd://example.com[:port] ## -a nbd://example.com[:port]/exportname ## -a nbd://?socket=/socket ## -a nbd:///exportname?socket=/socket Add a disk located on Network Block Device (nbd) storage. The exportname part of the URI specifies an NBD export name, but is usually left empty. The optional ?socket parameter can be used to specify a Unix domain socket that we talk to the NBD server over. Note that you cannot mix server name (ie. TCP/IP) and socket path. The equivalent API command would be (no export name):  ><fs> add "" protocol:nbd server:[tcp:example.com|unix:/socket] ## -a rbd:///pool/disk ## -a rbd://example.com[:port]/pool/disk Add a disk image located on a Ceph (RBD/librbd) storage volume. Although libguestfs and Ceph supports multiple servers, only a single server can be specified when using this URI syntax. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add pool/disk protocol:rbd server:tcp:example.com:port ## -a sheepdog://[example.com[:port]]/volume/image Add a disk image located on a Sheepdog volume. The server name is optional. Although libguestfs and Sheepdog supports multiple servers, only at most one server can be specified when using this URI syntax. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add volume protocol:sheepdog [server:tcp:example.com] ## -a ssh://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img Add a disk image located on a remote server, accessed using the Secure Shell (ssh) SFTP protocol. SFTP is supported out of the box by all major SSH servers. The equivalent API command would be:  ><fs> add /disk protocol:ssh server:tcp:example.com [username:user] Note that the URIs follow the syntax of RFC 3986: in particular, there are restrictions on the allowed characters for the various components of the URI. Characters such as :, @, and / must be percent-encoded: $ guestfish -a ssh://user:pass%40word@example.com/disk.img

In this case, the password is pass@word.

# PROGRESS BARS

Some (not all) long-running commands send progress notification messages as they are running. Guestfish turns these messages into progress bars.

When a command that supports progress bars takes longer than two seconds to run, and if progress bars are enabled, then you will see one appearing below the command:

 ><fs> copy-size /large-file /another-file 2048M
/ 10% [#####-----------------------------------------] 00:30

The spinner on the left hand side moves round once for every progress notification received from the backend. This is a (reasonably) golden assurance that the command is "doing something" even if the progress bar is not moving, because the command is able to send the progress notifications. When the bar reaches 100% and the command finishes, the spinner disappears.

Progress bars are enabled by default when guestfish is used interactively. You can enable them even for non-interactive modes using --progress-bars, and you can disable them completely using --no-progress-bars.

# PROMPT

You can change or add colours to the default prompt (><fs>) by setting the GUESTFISH_PS1 environment variable. A second string (GUESTFISH_OUTPUT) is printed after the command has been entered and before the output, allowing you to control the colour of the output. A third string (GUESTFISH_INIT) is printed before the welcome message, allowing you to control the colour of that message. A fourth string (GUESTFISH_RESTORE) is printed before guestfish exits.

A simple prompt can be set by setting GUESTFISH_PS1 to an alternate string:

 $GUESTFISH_PS1='(type a command) '$ export GUESTFISH_PS1
$guestfish [...] (type a command) ▂ You can also use special escape sequences, as described in the table below: \\ A literal backslash character.  (These should only be used in GUESTFISH_PS1.) Place non-printing characters (eg. terminal control codes for colours) between $...$. What this does it to tell the readline(3) library that it should treat this subsequence as zero-width, so that command-line redisplay, editing etc works. \a A bell character. \e An ASCII ESC (escape) character. \n A newline. \r A carriage return. \NNN The ASCII character whose code is the octal value NNN. \xNN The ASCII character whose code is the hex value NN. ## EXAMPLES OF PROMPTS Note that these examples require a terminal that supports ANSI escape codes. •  GUESTFISH_PS1='$\e[1;30m$><fs>$\e[0;30m$ ' A bold black version of the ordinary prompt. •  GUESTFISH_PS1='$\e[1;32m$><fs>$\e[0;31m$ ' GUESTFISH_OUTPUT='\e[0m' GUESTFISH_RESTORE="$GUESTFISH_OUTPUT"
GUESTFISH_INIT='\e[1;34m'

Blue welcome text, green prompt, red commands, black command output.

# WINDOWS 8

Windows 8 "fast startup" can prevent guestfish from mounting NTFS partitions. See "WINDOWS HIBERNATION AND WINDOWS 8 FAST STARTUP" in guestfs(3).

# GUESTFISH COMMANDS

The commands in this section are guestfish convenience commands, in other words, they are not part of the guestfs(3) API.

## help

 help
help cmd
help -l|--list

Without any parameter, this provides general help.

With a cmd parameter, this displays detailed help for that command.

With -l or --list, this list all commands.

## quit

This exits guestfish. You can also use ^D key.

## allocate

 alloc filename size

This creates an empty (zeroed) file of the given size, and then adds so it can be further examined.

For more advanced image creation, see "disk-create".

Size can be specified using standard suffixes, eg. 1M.

To create a sparse file, use "sparse" instead. To create a prepared disk image, see "PREPARED DISK IMAGES".

## copy-in

 copy-in local [local ...] /remotedir

copy-in copies local files or directories recursively into the disk image, placing them in the directory called /remotedir (which must exist). This guestfish meta-command turns into a sequence of "tar-in" and other commands as necessary.

Multiple local files and directories can be specified, but the last parameter must always be a remote directory. Wildcards cannot be used.

## copy-out

 copy-out remote [remote ...] localdir

copy-out copies remote files or directories recursively out of the disk image, placing them on the host disk in a local directory called localdir (which must exist). This guestfish meta-command turns into a sequence of "download", "tar-out" and other commands as necessary.

Multiple remote files and directories can be specified, but the last parameter must always be a local directory. To download to the current directory, use . as in:

 copy-out /home .

Wildcards cannot be used in the ordinary command, but you can use them with the help of "glob" like this:

 glob copy-out /home/* .

## delete-event

 delete-event name

Delete the event handler which was previously registered as name. If multiple event handlers were registered with the same name, they are all deleted.

See also the guestfish commands event and list-events.

## display

 display filename

Use display (a graphical display program) to display an image file. It downloads the file, and runs display on it.

To use an alternative program, set the GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE environment variable. For example to use the GNOME display program:

 export GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE=eog

## echo

 echo [params ...]

This echos the parameters to the terminal.

## emacs

 edit filename

The editor is $EDITOR. However if you use the alternate commands vi or emacs you will get those corresponding editors. ## event  event name eventset "shell script ..." Register a shell script fragment which is executed when an event is raised. See "guestfs_set_event_callback" in guestfs(3) for a discussion of the event API in libguestfs. The name parameter is a name that you give to this event handler. It can be any string (even the empty string) and is simply there so you can delete the handler using the guestfish delete-event command. The eventset parameter is a comma-separated list of one or more events, for example close or close,trace. The special value * means all events. The third and final parameter is the shell script fragment (or any external command) that is executed when any of the events in the eventset occurs. It is executed using $SHELL -c, or if $SHELL is not set then /bin/sh -c. The shell script fragment receives callback parameters as arguments $1, $2 etc. The actual event that was called is available in the environment variable $EVENT.

 event "" close "echo closed"

## reopen

  reopen

Close and reopen the libguestfs handle. It is not necessary to use this normally, because the handle is closed properly when guestfish exits. However this is occasionally useful for testing.

## setenv

  setenv VAR value

Set the environment variable VAR to the string value.

To print the value of an environment variable use a shell command such as:

 !echo $VAR ## sparse  sparse filename size This creates an empty sparse file of the given size, and then adds so it can be further examined. In all respects it works the same as the "alloc" command, except that the image file is allocated sparsely, which means that disk blocks are not assigned to the file until they are needed. Sparse disk files only use space when written to, but they are slower and there is a danger you could run out of real disk space during a write operation. For more advanced image creation, see "disk-create". Size can be specified using standard suffixes, eg. 1M. See also the guestfish "scratch" command. ## supported  supported This command returns a list of the optional groups known to the daemon, and indicates which ones are supported by this build of the libguestfs appliance. See also "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3). ## time  time command args... Run the command as usual, but print the elapsed time afterwards. This can be useful for benchmarking operations. ## unsetenv  unsetenv VAR Remove VAR from the environment. # COMMANDS ## acl-delete-def-file  acl-delete-def-file dir This function deletes the default POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to directory dir. This command depends on the feature acl. See also "feature-available". ## acl-get-file  acl-get-file path acltype This function returns the POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to path. The ACL is returned in "long text form" (see acl(5)). The acltype parameter may be: access Return the ordinary (access) ACL for any file, directory or other filesystem object. default Return the default ACL. Normally this only makes sense if path is a directory. This command depends on the feature acl. See also "feature-available". ## acl-set-file  acl-set-file path acltype acl This function sets the POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to path. The acltype parameter may be: access Set the ordinary (access) ACL for any file, directory or other filesystem object. default Set the default ACL. Normally this only makes sense if path is a directory. The acl parameter is the new ACL in either "long text form" or "short text form" (see acl(5)). The new ACL completely replaces any previous ACL on the file. The ACL must contain the full Unix permissions (eg. u::rwx,g::rx,o::rx). If you are specifying individual users or groups, then the mask field is also required (eg. m::rwx), followed by the u:ID:... and/or g:ID:... field(s). A full ACL string might therefore look like this:  u::rwx,g::rwx,o::rwx,m::rwx,u:500:rwx,g:500:rwx \ Unix permissions / \mask/ \ ACL / You should use numeric UIDs and GIDs. To map usernames and groupnames to the correct numeric ID in the context of the guest, use the Augeas functions (see "aug-init"). This command depends on the feature acl. See also "feature-available". ## add-cdrom  add-cdrom filename This function adds a virtual CD-ROM disk image to the guest. The image is added as read-only drive, so this function is equivalent of "add-drive-ro". This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "add-drive-ro" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## add-domain ## domain  add-domain dom [libvirturi:..] [readonly:true|false] [iface:..] [live:true|false] [allowuuid:true|false] [readonlydisk:..] [cachemode:..] [discard:..] [copyonread:true|false] This function adds the disk(s) attached to the named libvirt domain dom. It works by connecting to libvirt, requesting the domain and domain XML from libvirt, parsing it for disks, and calling "add-drive-opts" on each one. The number of disks added is returned. This operation is atomic: if an error is returned, then no disks are added. This function does some minimal checks to make sure the libvirt domain is not running (unless readonly is true). In a future version we will try to acquire the libvirt lock on each disk. Disks must be accessible locally. This often means that adding disks from a remote libvirt connection (see https://libvirt.org/remote.html) will fail unless those disks are accessible via the same device path locally too. The optional libvirturi parameter sets the libvirt URI (see https://libvirt.org/uri.html). If this is not set then we connect to the default libvirt URI (or one set through an environment variable, see the libvirt documentation for full details). The optional live flag controls whether this call will try to connect to a running virtual machine guestfsd process if it sees a suitable <channel> element in the libvirt XML definition. The default (if the flag is omitted) is never to try. See "ATTACHING TO RUNNING DAEMONS" in guestfs(3) for more information. If the allowuuid flag is true (default is false) then a UUID may be passed instead of the domain name. The dom string is treated as a UUID first and looked up, and if that lookup fails then we treat dom as a name as usual. The optional readonlydisk parameter controls what we do for disks which are marked <readonly/> in the libvirt XML. Possible values are: readonlydisk = "error" If readonly is false: The whole call is aborted with an error if any disk with the <readonly/> flag is found. If readonly is true: Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read-only. readonlydisk = "read" If readonly is false: Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read-only. Other disks are added read/write. If readonly is true: Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read-only. readonlydisk = "write" (default) If readonly is false: Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read/write. If readonly is true: Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read-only. readonlydisk = "ignore" If readonly is true or false: Disks with the <readonly/> flag are skipped. If present, the value of logical_block_size attribute of <blockio/> tag in libvirt XML will be passed as blocksize parameter to "add-drive-opts". The other optional parameters are passed directly through to "add-drive-opts". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". ## add-drive ## add ## add-drive-opts  add-drive filename [readonly:true|false] [format:..] [iface:..] [name:..] [label:..] [protocol:..] [server:..] [username:..] [secret:..] [cachemode:..] [discard:..] [copyonread:true|false] [blocksize:N] This function adds a disk image called filename to the handle. filename may be a regular host file or a host device. When this function is called before "launch" (the usual case) then the first time you call this function, the disk appears in the API as /dev/sda, the second time as /dev/sdb, and so on. In libguestfs ≥ 1.20 you can also call this function after launch (with some restrictions). This is called "hotplugging". When hotplugging, you must specify a label so that the new disk gets a predictable name. For more information see "HOTPLUGGING" in guestfs(3). You don't necessarily need to be root when using libguestfs. However you obviously do need sufficient permissions to access the filename for whatever operations you want to perform (ie. read access if you just want to read the image or write access if you want to modify the image). This call checks that filename exists. filename may be the special string "/dev/null". See "NULL DISKS" in guestfs(3). The optional arguments are: readonly If true then the image is treated as read-only. Writes are still allowed, but they are stored in a temporary snapshot overlay which is discarded at the end. The disk that you add is not modified. format This forces the image format. If you omit this (or use "add-drive" or "add-drive-ro") then the format is automatically detected. Possible formats include raw and qcow2. Automatic detection of the format opens you up to a potential security hole when dealing with untrusted raw-format images. See CVE-2010-3851 and RHBZ#642934. Specifying the format closes this security hole. iface This rarely-used option lets you emulate the behaviour of the deprecated "add-drive-with-if" call (q.v.) name The name the drive had in the original guest, e.g. /dev/sdb. This is used as a hint to the guest inspection process if it is available. label Give the disk a label. The label should be a unique, short string using only ASCII characters [a-zA-Z]. As well as its usual name in the API (such as /dev/sda), the drive will also be named /dev/disk/guestfs/label. protocol The optional protocol argument can be used to select an alternate source protocol. See also: "REMOTE STORAGE" in guestfs(3). protocol = "file" filename is interpreted as a local file or device. This is the default if the optional protocol parameter is omitted. protocol = "ftp"|"ftps"|"http"|"https"|"tftp" Connect to a remote FTP, HTTP or TFTP server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below. See also: "FTP, HTTP AND TFTP" in guestfs(3) protocol = "gluster" Connect to the GlusterFS server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below. See also: "GLUSTER" in guestfs(3) protocol = "iscsi" Connect to the iSCSI server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below. The username parameter may be supplied. See below. The secret parameter may be supplied. See below. See also: "ISCSI" in guestfs(3). protocol = "nbd" Connect to the Network Block Device server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below. See also: "NETWORK BLOCK DEVICE" in guestfs(3). protocol = "rbd" Connect to the Ceph (librbd/RBD) server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below. The username parameter may be supplied. See below. The secret parameter may be supplied. See below. See also: "CEPH" in guestfs(3). protocol = "sheepdog" Connect to the Sheepdog server. The server parameter may also be supplied - see below. See also: "SHEEPDOG" in guestfs(3). protocol = "ssh" Connect to the Secure Shell (ssh) server. The server parameter must be supplied. The username parameter may be supplied. See below. See also: "SSH" in guestfs(3). server For protocols which require access to a remote server, this is a list of server(s).  Protocol Number of servers required -------- -------------------------- file List must be empty or param not used at all ftp|ftps|http|https|tftp Exactly one gluster Exactly one iscsi Exactly one nbd Exactly one rbd Zero or more sheepdog Zero or more ssh Exactly one Each list element is a string specifying a server. The string must be in one of the following formats:  hostname hostname:port tcp:hostname tcp:hostname:port unix:/path/to/socket If the port number is omitted, then the standard port number for the protocol is used (see /etc/services). username For the ftp, ftps, http, https, iscsi, rbd, ssh and tftp protocols, this specifies the remote username. If not given, then the local username is used for ssh, and no authentication is attempted for ceph. But note this sometimes may give unexpected results, for example if using the libvirt backend and if the libvirt backend is configured to start the qemu appliance as a special user such as qemu.qemu. If in doubt, specify the remote username you want. secret For the rbd protocol only, this specifies the ‘secret’ to use when connecting to the remote device. It must be base64 encoded. If not given, then a secret matching the given username will be looked up in the default keychain locations, or if no username is given, then no authentication will be used. cachemode Choose whether or not libguestfs will obey sync operations (safe but slow) or not (unsafe but fast). The possible values for this string are: cachemode = "writeback" This is the default. Write operations in the API do not return until a write(2) call has completed in the host [but note this does not imply that anything gets written to disk]. Sync operations in the API, including implicit syncs caused by filesystem journalling, will not return until an fdatasync(2) call has completed in the host, indicating that data has been committed to disk. cachemode = "unsafe" In this mode, there are no guarantees. Libguestfs may cache anything and ignore sync requests. This is suitable only for scratch or temporary disks. discard Enable or disable discard (a.k.a. trim or unmap) support on this drive. If enabled, operations such as "fstrim" will be able to discard / make thin / punch holes in the underlying host file or device. Possible discard settings are: discard = "disable" Disable discard support. This is the default. discard = "enable" Enable discard support. Fail if discard is not possible. discard = "besteffort" Enable discard support if possible, but don't fail if it is not supported. Since not all backends and not all underlying systems support discard, this is a good choice if you want to use discard if possible, but don't mind if it doesn't work. copyonread The boolean parameter copyonread enables copy-on-read support. This only affects disk formats which have backing files, and causes reads to be stored in the overlay layer, speeding up multiple reads of the same area of disk. The default is false. blocksize This parameter sets the sector size of the disk. Possible values are 512 (the default if the parameter is omitted) or 4096. Use 4096 when handling an "Advanced Format" disk that uses 4K sector size (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advanced_Format). Only a subset of the backends support this parameter (currently only the libvirt and direct backends do). This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". ## add-drive-ro ## add-ro  add-drive-ro filename This function is the equivalent of calling "add-drive-opts" with the optional parameter GUESTFS_ADD_DRIVE_OPTS_READONLY set to 1, so the disk is added read-only, with the format being detected automatically. ## add-drive-ro-with-if  add-drive-ro-with-if filename iface This is the same as "add-drive-ro" but it allows you to specify the QEMU interface emulation to use at run time. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "add-drive" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## add-drive-scratch ## scratch  add-drive-scratch size [name:..] [label:..] [blocksize:N] This command adds a temporary scratch drive to the handle. The size parameter is the virtual size (in bytes). The scratch drive is blank initially (all reads return zeroes until you start writing to it). The drive is deleted when the handle is closed. The optional arguments name, label and blocksize are passed through to "add-drive-opts". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". ## add-drive-with-if  add-drive-with-if filename iface This is the same as "add-drive" but it allows you to specify the QEMU interface emulation to use at run time. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "add-drive" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## aug-clear  aug-clear augpath Set the value associated with path to NULL. This is the same as the augtool(1) clear command. ## aug-close  aug-close Close the current Augeas handle and free up any resources used by it. After calling this, you have to call "aug-init" again before you can use any other Augeas functions. ## aug-defnode  aug-defnode name expr val Defines a variable name whose value is the result of evaluating expr. If expr evaluates to an empty nodeset, a node is created, equivalent to calling "aug-set" expr, val. name will be the nodeset containing that single node. On success this returns a pair containing the number of nodes in the nodeset, and a boolean flag if a node was created. ## aug-defvar  aug-defvar name expr Defines an Augeas variable name whose value is the result of evaluating expr. If expr is NULL, then name is undefined. On success this returns the number of nodes in expr, or 0 if expr evaluates to something which is not a nodeset. ## aug-get  aug-get augpath Look up the value associated with path. If path matches exactly one node, the value is returned. ## aug-init  aug-init root flags Create a new Augeas handle for editing configuration files. If there was any previous Augeas handle associated with this guestfs session, then it is closed. You must call this before using any other "aug-*" commands. root is the filesystem root. root must not be NULL, use / instead. The flags are the same as the flags defined in <augeas.h>, the logical or of the following integers: AUG_SAVE_BACKUP = 1 Keep the original file with a .augsave extension. AUG_SAVE_NEWFILE = 2 Save changes into a file with extension .augnew, and do not overwrite original. Overrides AUG_SAVE_BACKUP. AUG_TYPE_CHECK = 4 Typecheck lenses. This option is only useful when debugging Augeas lenses. Use of this option may require additional memory for the libguestfs appliance. You may need to set the LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE environment variable or call "set-memsize". AUG_NO_STDINC = 8 Do not use standard load path for modules. AUG_SAVE_NOOP = 16 Make save a no-op, just record what would have been changed. AUG_NO_LOAD = 32 Do not load the tree in "aug-init". To close the handle, you can call "aug-close". To find out more about Augeas, see http://augeas.net/. ## aug-insert  aug-insert augpath label true|false Create a new sibling label for path, inserting it into the tree before or after path (depending on the boolean flag before). path must match exactly one existing node in the tree, and label must be a label, ie. not contain /, * or end with a bracketed index [N]. ## aug-label  aug-label augpath The label (name of the last element) of the Augeas path expression augpath is returned. augpath must match exactly one node, else this function returns an error. ## aug-load  aug-load Load files into the tree. See aug_load in the Augeas documentation for the full gory details. ## aug-ls  aug-ls augpath This is just a shortcut for listing "aug-match" path/* and sorting the resulting nodes into alphabetical order. ## aug-match  aug-match augpath Returns a list of paths which match the path expression path. The returned paths are sufficiently qualified so that they match exactly one node in the current tree. ## aug-mv  aug-mv src dest Move the node src to dest. src must match exactly one node. dest is overwritten if it exists. ## aug-rm  aug-rm augpath Remove path and all of its children. On success this returns the number of entries which were removed. ## aug-save  aug-save This writes all pending changes to disk. The flags which were passed to "aug-init" affect exactly how files are saved. ## aug-set  aug-set augpath val Set the value associated with augpath to val. In the Augeas API, it is possible to clear a node by setting the value to NULL. Due to an oversight in the libguestfs API you cannot do that with this call. Instead you must use the "aug-clear" call. ## aug-setm  aug-setm base sub val Change multiple Augeas nodes in a single operation. base is an expression matching multiple nodes. sub is a path expression relative to base. All nodes matching base are found, and then for each node, sub is changed to val. sub may also be NULL in which case the base nodes are modified. This returns the number of nodes modified. ## aug-transform  aug-transform lens file [remove:true|false] Add an Augeas transformation for the specified lens so it can handle file. If remove is true (false by default), then the transformation is removed. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". ## available  available 'groups ...' This command is used to check the availability of some groups of functionality in the appliance, which not all builds of the libguestfs appliance will be able to provide. The libguestfs groups, and the functions that those groups correspond to, are listed in "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3). You can also fetch this list at runtime by calling "available-all-groups". The argument groups is a list of group names, eg: ["inotify", "augeas"] would check for the availability of the Linux inotify functions and Augeas (configuration file editing) functions. The command returns no error if all requested groups are available. It fails with an error if one or more of the requested groups is unavailable in the appliance. If an unknown group name is included in the list of groups then an error is always returned. Notes: • "feature-available" is the same as this call, but with a slightly simpler to use API: that call returns a boolean true/false instead of throwing an error. • You must call "launch" before calling this function. The reason is because we don't know what groups are supported by the appliance/daemon until it is running and can be queried. • If a group of functions is available, this does not necessarily mean that they will work. You still have to check for errors when calling individual API functions even if they are available. • It is usually the job of distro packagers to build complete functionality into the libguestfs appliance. Upstream libguestfs, if built from source with all requirements satisfied, will support everything. • This call was added in version 1.0.80. In previous versions of libguestfs all you could do would be to speculatively execute a command to find out if the daemon implemented it. See also "version". See also "filesystem-available". ## available-all-groups  available-all-groups This command returns a list of all optional groups that this daemon knows about. Note this returns both supported and unsupported groups. To find out which ones the daemon can actually support you have to call "available" / "feature-available" on each member of the returned list. ## base64-in  base64-in (base64file|-) filename This command uploads base64-encoded data from base64file to filename. Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. ## base64-out  base64-out filename (base64file|-) This command downloads the contents of filename, writing it out to local file base64file encoded as base64. Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. ## blkdiscard  blkdiscard device This discards all blocks on the block device device, giving the free space back to the host. This operation requires support in libguestfs, the host filesystem, qemu and the host kernel. If this support isn't present it may give an error or even appear to run but do nothing. You must also set the discard attribute on the underlying drive (see "add-drive-opts"). This command depends on the feature blkdiscard. See also "feature-available". ## blkdiscardzeroes  blkdiscardzeroes device This call returns true if blocks on device that have been discarded by a call to "blkdiscard" are returned as blocks of zero bytes when read the next time. If it returns false, then it may be that discarded blocks are read as stale or random data. This command depends on the feature blkdiscardzeroes. See also "feature-available". ## blkid  blkid device This command returns block device attributes for device. The following fields are usually present in the returned hash. Other fields may also be present. UUID The uuid of this device. LABEL The label of this device. VERSION The version of blkid command. TYPE The filesystem type or RAID of this device. USAGE The usage of this device, for example filesystem or raid. ## blockdev-flushbufs  blockdev-flushbufs device This tells the kernel to flush internal buffers associated with device. This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## blockdev-getbsz  blockdev-getbsz device This returns the block size of a device. Note: this is different from both size in blocks and filesystem block size. Also this setting is not really used by anything. You should probably not use it for anything. Filesystems have their own idea about what block size to choose. This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## blockdev-getro  blockdev-getro device Returns a boolean indicating if the block device is read-only (true if read-only, false if not). This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## blockdev-getsize64  blockdev-getsize64 device This returns the size of the device in bytes. See also "blockdev-getsz". This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## blockdev-getss  blockdev-getss device This returns the size of sectors on a block device. Usually 512, but can be larger for modern devices. (Note, this is not the size in sectors, use "blockdev-getsz" for that). This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## blockdev-getsz  blockdev-getsz device This returns the size of the device in units of 512-byte sectors (even if the sectorsize isn't 512 bytes ... weird). See also "blockdev-getss" for the real sector size of the device, and "blockdev-getsize64" for the more useful size in bytes. This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## blockdev-rereadpt  blockdev-rereadpt device Reread the partition table on device. This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## blockdev-setbsz  blockdev-setbsz device blocksize This call does nothing and has never done anything because of a bug in blockdev. Do not use it. If you need to set the filesystem block size, use the blocksize option of "mkfs". This function is deprecated. There is no replacement. Consult the API documentation in guestfs(3) for further information. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## blockdev-setra  blockdev-setra device sectors Set readahead (in 512-byte sectors) for the device. This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## blockdev-setro  blockdev-setro device Sets the block device named device to read-only. This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## blockdev-setrw  blockdev-setrw device Sets the block device named device to read-write. This uses the blockdev(8) command. ## btrfs-balance-cancel  btrfs-balance-cancel path Cancel a running balance on a btrfs filesystem. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-balance-pause  btrfs-balance-pause path Pause a running balance on a btrfs filesystem. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-balance-resume  btrfs-balance-resume path Resume a paused balance on a btrfs filesystem. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-balance-status  btrfs-balance-status path Show the status of a running or paused balance on a btrfs filesystem. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-device-add  btrfs-device-add 'devices ...' fs Add the list of device(s) in devices to the btrfs filesystem mounted at fs. If devices is an empty list, this does nothing. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-device-delete  btrfs-device-delete 'devices ...' fs Remove the devices from the btrfs filesystem mounted at fs. If devices is an empty list, this does nothing. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-filesystem-balance ## btrfs-balance  btrfs-filesystem-balance fs Balance the chunks in the btrfs filesystem mounted at fs across the underlying devices. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-filesystem-defragment  btrfs-filesystem-defragment path [flush:true|false] [compress:..] Defragment a file or directory on a btrfs filesystem. compress is one of zlib or lzo. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-filesystem-resize  btrfs-filesystem-resize mountpoint [size:N] This command resizes a btrfs filesystem. Note that unlike other resize calls, the filesystem has to be mounted and the parameter is the mountpoint not the device (this is a requirement of btrfs itself). The optional parameters are: size The new size (in bytes) of the filesystem. If omitted, the filesystem is resized to the maximum size. See also btrfs(8). This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-filesystem-show  btrfs-filesystem-show device Show all the devices where the filesystems in device is spanned over. If not all the devices for the filesystems are present, then this function fails and the errno is set to ENODEV. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-filesystem-sync  btrfs-filesystem-sync fs Force sync on the btrfs filesystem mounted at fs. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-fsck  btrfs-fsck device [superblock:N] [repair:true|false] Used to check a btrfs filesystem, device is the device file where the filesystem is stored. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-image  btrfs-image 'source ...' image [compresslevel:N] This is used to create an image of a btrfs filesystem. All data will be zeroed, but metadata and the like is preserved. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-qgroup-assign  btrfs-qgroup-assign src dst path Add qgroup src to parent qgroup dst. This command can group several qgroups into a parent qgroup to share common limit. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-qgroup-create  btrfs-qgroup-create qgroupid subvolume Create a quota group (qgroup) for subvolume at subvolume. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-qgroup-destroy  btrfs-qgroup-destroy qgroupid subvolume Destroy a quota group. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-qgroup-limit  btrfs-qgroup-limit subvolume size Limit the size of the subvolume with path subvolume. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-qgroup-remove  btrfs-qgroup-remove src dst path Remove qgroup src from the parent qgroup dst. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-qgroup-show  btrfs-qgroup-show path Show all subvolume quota groups in a btrfs filesystem, including their usages. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-quota-enable  btrfs-quota-enable fs true|false Enable or disable subvolume quota support for filesystem which contains path. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-quota-rescan  btrfs-quota-rescan fs Trash all qgroup numbers and scan the metadata again with the current config. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-replace  btrfs-replace srcdev targetdev mntpoint Replace device of a btrfs filesystem. On a live filesystem, duplicate the data to the target device which is currently stored on the source device. After completion of the operation, the source device is wiped out and removed from the filesystem. The targetdev needs to be same size or larger than the srcdev. Devices which are currently mounted are never allowed to be used as the targetdev. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-rescue-chunk-recover  btrfs-rescue-chunk-recover device Recover the chunk tree of btrfs filesystem by scanning the devices one by one. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-rescue-super-recover  btrfs-rescue-super-recover device Recover bad superblocks from good copies. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-scrub-cancel  btrfs-scrub-cancel path Cancel a running scrub on a btrfs filesystem. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-scrub-resume  btrfs-scrub-resume path Resume a previously canceled or interrupted scrub on a btrfs filesystem. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-scrub-start  btrfs-scrub-start path Reads all the data and metadata on the filesystem, and uses checksums and the duplicate copies from RAID storage to identify and repair any corrupt data. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-scrub-status  btrfs-scrub-status path Show status of running or finished scrub on a btrfs filesystem. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-set-seeding  btrfs-set-seeding device true|false Enable or disable the seeding feature of a device that contains a btrfs filesystem. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-subvolume-create ## btrfs-subvolume-create-opts  btrfs-subvolume-create dest [qgroupid:..] Create a btrfs subvolume. The dest argument is the destination directory and the name of the subvolume, in the form /path/to/dest/name. The optional parameter qgroupid represents the qgroup which the newly created subvolume will be added to. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-subvolume-delete  btrfs-subvolume-delete subvolume Delete the named btrfs subvolume or snapshot. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-subvolume-get-default  btrfs-subvolume-get-default fs Get the default subvolume or snapshot of a filesystem mounted at mountpoint. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-subvolume-list  btrfs-subvolume-list fs List the btrfs snapshots and subvolumes of the btrfs filesystem which is mounted at fs. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-subvolume-set-default  btrfs-subvolume-set-default id fs Set the subvolume of the btrfs filesystem fs which will be mounted by default. See "btrfs-subvolume-list" to get a list of subvolumes. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-subvolume-show  btrfs-subvolume-show subvolume Return detailed information of the subvolume. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfs-subvolume-snapshot ## btrfs-subvolume-snapshot-opts  btrfs-subvolume-snapshot source dest [ro:true|false] [qgroupid:..] Create a snapshot of the btrfs subvolume source. The dest argument is the destination directory and the name of the snapshot, in the form /path/to/dest/name. By default the newly created snapshot is writable, if the value of optional parameter ro is true, then a readonly snapshot is created. The optional parameter qgroupid represents the qgroup which the newly created snapshot will be added to. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfstune-enable-extended-inode-refs  btrfstune-enable-extended-inode-refs device This will Enable extended inode refs. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfstune-enable-skinny-metadata-extent-refs  btrfstune-enable-skinny-metadata-extent-refs device This enable skinny metadata extent refs. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## btrfstune-seeding  btrfstune-seeding device true|false Enable seeding of a btrfs device, this will force a fs readonly so that you can use it to build other filesystems. This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available". ## c-pointer  c-pointer In non-C language bindings, this allows you to retrieve the underlying C pointer to the handle (ie. "h *"). The purpose of this is to allow other libraries to interwork with libguestfs. ## canonical-device-name  canonical-device-name device This utility function is useful when displaying device names to the user. It takes a number of irregular device names and returns them in a consistent format: /dev/hdX /dev/vdX These are returned as /dev/sdX. Note this works for device names and partition names. This is approximately the reverse of the algorithm described in "BLOCK DEVICE NAMING" in guestfs(3). /dev/mapper/VG-LV /dev/dm-N Converted to /dev/VG/LV form using "lvm-canonical-lv-name". Other strings are returned unmodified. ## cap-get-file  cap-get-file path This function returns the Linux capabilities attached to path. The capabilities set is returned in text form (see cap_to_text(3)). If no capabilities are attached to a file, an empty string is returned. This command depends on the feature linuxcaps. See also "feature-available". ## cap-set-file  cap-set-file path cap This function sets the Linux capabilities attached to path. The capabilities set cap should be passed in text form (see cap_from_text(3)). This command depends on the feature linuxcaps. See also "feature-available". ## case-sensitive-path  case-sensitive-path path This can be used to resolve case insensitive paths on a filesystem which is case sensitive. The use case is to resolve paths which you have read from Windows configuration files or the Windows Registry, to the true path. The command handles a peculiarity of the Linux ntfs-3g filesystem driver (and probably others), which is that although the underlying filesystem is case-insensitive, the driver exports the filesystem to Linux as case-sensitive. One consequence of this is that special directories such as C:\windows may appear as /WINDOWS or /windows (or other things) depending on the precise details of how they were created. In Windows itself this would not be a problem. Bug or feature? You decide: https://www.tuxera.com/community/ntfs-3g-faq/#posixfilenames1 "case-sensitive-path" attempts to resolve the true case of each element in the path. It will return a resolved path if either the full path or its parent directory exists. If the parent directory exists but the full path does not, the case of the parent directory will be correctly resolved, and the remainder appended unmodified. For example, if the file "/Windows/System32/netkvm.sys" exists: "case-sensitive-path" ("/windows/system32/netkvm.sys") "Windows/System32/netkvm.sys" "case-sensitive-path" ("/windows/system32/NoSuchFile") "Windows/System32/NoSuchFile" "case-sensitive-path" ("/windows/system33/netkvm.sys") ERROR Note: Because of the above behaviour, "case-sensitive-path" cannot be used to check for the existence of a file. Note: This function does not handle drive names, backslashes etc. See also "realpath". ## cat  cat path Return the contents of the file named path. Because, in C, this function returns a char *, there is no way to differentiate between a \0 character in a file and end of string. To handle binary files, use the "read-file" or "download" functions. ## checksum  checksum csumtype path This call computes the MD5, SHAx or CRC checksum of the file named path. The type of checksum to compute is given by the csumtype parameter which must have one of the following values: crc Compute the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) specified by POSIX for the cksum command. md5 Compute the MD5 hash (using the md5sum(1) program). sha1 Compute the SHA1 hash (using the sha1sum(1) program). sha224 Compute the SHA224 hash (using the sha224sum(1) program). sha256 Compute the SHA256 hash (using the sha256sum(1) program). sha384 Compute the SHA384 hash (using the sha384sum(1) program). sha512 Compute the SHA512 hash (using the sha512sum(1) program). The checksum is returned as a printable string. To get the checksum for a device, use "checksum-device". To get the checksums for many files, use "checksums-out". ## checksum-device  checksum-device csumtype device This call computes the MD5, SHAx or CRC checksum of the contents of the device named device. For the types of checksums supported see the "checksum" command. ## checksums-out  checksums-out csumtype directory (sumsfile|-) This command computes the checksums of all regular files in directory and then emits a list of those checksums to the local output file sumsfile. This can be used for verifying the integrity of a virtual machine. However to be properly secure you should pay attention to the output of the checksum command (it uses the ones from GNU coreutils). In particular when the filename is not printable, coreutils uses a special backslash syntax. For more information, see the GNU coreutils info file. Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. ## chmod  chmod mode path Change the mode (permissions) of path to mode. Only numeric modes are supported. Note: When using this command from guestfish, mode by default would be decimal, unless you prefix it with 0 to get octal, ie. use 0700 not 700. The mode actually set is affected by the umask. ## chown  chown owner group path Change the file owner to owner and group to group. Only numeric uid and gid are supported. If you want to use names, you will need to locate and parse the password file yourself (Augeas support makes this relatively easy). ## clear-backend-setting  clear-backend-setting name If there is a backend setting string matching "name" or beginning with "name=", then that string is removed from the backend settings. This call returns the number of strings which were removed (which may be 0, 1 or greater than 1). ## command  command 'arguments ...' This call runs a command from the guest filesystem. The filesystem must be mounted, and must contain a compatible operating system (ie. something Linux, with the same or compatible processor architecture). The single parameter is an argv-style list of arguments. The first element is the name of the program to run. Subsequent elements are parameters. The list must be non-empty (ie. must contain a program name). Note that the command runs directly, and is not invoked via the shell (see "sh"). The return value is anything printed to stdout by the command. If the command returns a non-zero exit status, then this function returns an error message. The error message string is the content of stderr from the command. The $PATH environment variable will contain at least /usr/bin and /bin. If you require a program from another location, you should provide the full path in the first parameter.

Shared libraries and data files required by the program must be available on filesystems which are mounted in the correct places. It is the caller’s responsibility to ensure all filesystems that are needed are mounted at the right locations.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## command-lines

 command-lines 'arguments ...'

This is the same as "command", but splits the result into a list of lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## compress-device-out

 compress-device-out ctype device (zdevice|-) [level:N]

This command compresses device and writes it out to the local file zdevice.

The ctype and optional level parameters have the same meaning as in "compress-out".

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## compress-out

 compress-out ctype file (zfile|-) [level:N]

This command compresses file and writes it out to the local file zfile.

The compression program used is controlled by the ctype parameter. Currently this includes: compress, gzip, bzip2, xz or lzop. Some compression types may not be supported by particular builds of libguestfs, in which case you will get an error containing the substring "not supported".

The optional level parameter controls compression level. The meaning and default for this parameter depends on the compression program being used.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## config

 config hvparam hvvalue

This can be used to add arbitrary hypervisor parameters of the form -param value. Actually it’s not quite arbitrary - we prevent you from setting some parameters which would interfere with parameters that we use.

The first character of hvparam string must be a - (dash).

hvvalue can be NULL.

## copy-attributes

 copy-attributes src dest [all:true|false] [mode:true|false] [xattributes:true|false] [ownership:true|false]

Copy the attributes of a path (which can be a file or a directory) to another path.

By default no attribute is copied, so make sure to specify any (or all to copy everything).

The optional arguments specify which attributes can be copied:

mode

Copy part of the file mode from source to destination. Only the UNIX permissions and the sticky/setuid/setgid bits can be copied.

xattributes

Copy the Linux extended attributes (xattrs) from source to destination. This flag does nothing if the linuxxattrs feature is not available (see "feature-available").

ownership

Copy the owner uid and the group gid of source to destination.

all

Copy all the attributes from source to destination. Enabling it enables all the other flags, if they are not specified already.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## copy-device-to-device

 copy-device-to-device src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] [append:true|false]

The four calls "copy-device-to-device", "copy-device-to-file", "copy-file-to-device", and "copy-file-to-file" let you copy from a source (device|file) to a destination (device|file).

Partial copies can be made since you can specify optionally the source offset, destination offset and size to copy. These values are all specified in bytes. If not given, the offsets both default to zero, and the size defaults to copying as much as possible until we hit the end of the source.

The source and destination may be the same object. However overlapping regions may not be copied correctly.

If the destination is a file, it is created if required. If the destination file is not large enough, it is extended.

If the destination is a file and the append flag is not set, then the destination file is truncated. If the append flag is set, then the copy appends to the destination file. The append flag currently cannot be set for devices.

If the sparse flag is true then the call avoids writing blocks that contain only zeroes, which can help in some situations where the backing disk is thin-provisioned. Note that unless the target is already zeroed, using this option will result in incorrect copying.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## copy-device-to-file

 copy-device-to-file src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] [append:true|false]

See "copy-device-to-device" for a general overview of this call.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## copy-file-to-device

 copy-file-to-device src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] [append:true|false]

See "copy-device-to-device" for a general overview of this call.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## copy-file-to-file

 copy-file-to-file src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false] [append:true|false]

See "copy-device-to-device" for a general overview of this call.

This is not the function you want for copying files. This is for copying blocks within existing files. See "cp", "cp-a" and "mv" for general file copying and moving functions.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## copy-size

 copy-size src dest size

This command copies exactly size bytes from one source device or file src to another destination device or file dest.

Note this will fail if the source is too short or if the destination is not large enough.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "copy-device-to-device" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## cp

 cp src dest

This copies a file from src to dest where dest is either a destination filename or destination directory.

## cp-a

 cp-a src dest

This copies a file or directory from src to dest recursively using the cp -a command.

## cp-r

 cp-r src dest

This copies a file or directory from src to dest recursively using the cp -rP command.

Most users should use "cp-a" instead. This command is useful when you don't want to preserve permissions, because the target filesystem does not support it (primarily when writing to DOS FAT filesystems).

## cpio-out

 cpio-out directory (cpiofile|-) [format:..]

This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file cpiofile.

The optional format parameter can be used to select the format. Only the following formats are currently permitted:

newc

New (SVR4) portable format. This format happens to be compatible with the cpio-like format used by the Linux kernel for initramfs.

This is the default format.

crc

New (SVR4) portable format with a checksum.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## cryptsetup-close

 cryptsetup-close device

This closes an encrypted device that was created earlier by "cryptsetup-open". The device parameter must be the name of the mapping device (ie. /dev/mapper/mapname) and not the name of the underlying block device.

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## cryptsetup-open

 cryptsetup-open device mapname [readonly:true|false] [crypttype:..]

This command opens a block device which has been encrypted according to the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) standard, Windows BitLocker, or some other types.

device is the encrypted block device or partition.

The caller must supply one of the keys associated with the encrypted block device, in the key parameter.

This creates a new block device called /dev/mapper/mapname. Reads and writes to this block device are decrypted from and encrypted to the underlying device respectively.

mapname cannot be "control" because that name is reserved by device-mapper.

If the optional crypttype parameter is not present then libguestfs tries to guess the correct type (for example LUKS or BitLocker). However you can override this by specifying one of the following types:

luks

A Linux LUKS device.

bitlk

A Windows BitLocker device.

The optional readonly flag, if set to true, creates a read-only mapping.

If this block device contains LVM volume groups, then calling "lvm-scan" with the activate parameter true will make them visible.

Use "list-dm-devices" to list all device mapper devices.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## dd

 dd src dest

This command copies from one source device or file src to another destination device or file dest. Normally you would use this to copy to or from a device or partition, for example to duplicate a filesystem.

If the destination is a device, it must be as large or larger than the source file or device, otherwise the copy will fail. This command cannot do partial copies (see "copy-device-to-device").

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "copy-device-to-device" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## device-index

 device-index device

This function takes a device name (eg. "/dev/sdb") and returns the index of the device in the list of devices.

Index numbers start from 0. The named device must exist, for example as a string returned from "list-devices".

## df

 df

This command runs the df(1) command to report disk space used.

This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. Use "statvfs" from programs.

## df-h

 df-h

This command runs the df -h command to report disk space used in human-readable format.

This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. Use "statvfs" from programs.

## disk-create

 disk-create filename format size [backingfile:..] [backingformat:..] [preallocation:..] [compat:..] [clustersize:N]

Create a blank disk image called filename (a host file) with format format (usually raw or qcow2). The size is size bytes.

If used with the optional backingfile parameter, then a snapshot is created on top of the backing file. In this case, size must be passed as -1. The size of the snapshot is the same as the size of the backing file, which is discovered automatically. You are encouraged to also pass backingformat to describe the format of backingfile.

If filename refers to a block device, then the device is formatted. The size is ignored since block devices have an intrinsic size.

The other optional parameters are:

preallocation

If format is raw, then this can be either off (or sparse) or full to create a sparse or fully allocated file respectively. The default is off.

If format is qcow2, then this can be off (or sparse), metadata or full. Preallocating metadata can be faster when doing lots of writes, but uses more space. The default is off.

compat

qcow2 only: Pass the string 1.1 to use the advanced qcow2 format supported by qemu ≥ 1.1.

clustersize

qcow2 only: Change the qcow2 cluster size. The default is 65536 (bytes) and this setting may be any power of two between 512 and 2097152.

Note that this call does not add the new disk to the handle. You may need to call "add-drive-opts" separately.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## disk-format

 disk-format filename

Detect and return the format of the disk image called filename. filename can also be a host device, etc. If the format of the image could not be detected, then "unknown" is returned.

Note that detecting the disk format can be insecure under some circumstances. See "CVE-2010-3851" in guestfs(3).

## disk-has-backing-file

 disk-has-backing-file filename

Detect and return whether the disk image filename has a backing file.

Note that detecting disk features can be insecure under some circumstances. See "CVE-2010-3851" in guestfs(3).

## disk-virtual-size

 disk-virtual-size filename

Detect and return the virtual size in bytes of the disk image called filename.

Note that detecting disk features can be insecure under some circumstances. See "CVE-2010-3851" in guestfs(3).

## dmesg

 dmesg

This returns the kernel messages (dmesg(1) output) from the guest kernel. This is sometimes useful for extended debugging of problems.

Another way to get the same information is to enable verbose messages with "set-verbose" or by setting the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 before running the program.

 download remotefilename (filename|-)

Download file remotefilename and save it as filename on the local machine.

filename can also be a named pipe.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

 download-blocks device start stop (filename|-) [unallocated:true|false]

Download the data units from start address to stop from the disk partition (eg. /dev/sda1) and save them as filename on the local machine.

The use of this API on sparse disk image formats such as QCOW, may result in large zero-filled files downloaded on the host.

The size of a data unit varies across filesystem implementations. On NTFS filesystems data units are referred as clusters while on ExtX ones they are referred as fragments.

If the optional unallocated flag is true (default is false), only the unallocated blocks will be extracted. This is useful to detect hidden data or to retrieve deleted files which data units have not been overwritten yet.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature sleuthkit. See also "feature-available".

 download-inode device inode (filename|-)

Download a file given its inode from the disk partition (eg. /dev/sda1) and save it as filename on the local machine.

It is not required to mount the disk to run this command.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command depends on the feature sleuthkit. See also "feature-available".

 download-offset remotefilename (filename|-) offset size

Download file remotefilename and save it as filename on the local machine.

remotefilename is read for size bytes starting at offset (this region must be within the file or device).

Note that there is no limit on the amount of data that can be downloaded with this call, unlike with "pread", and this call always reads the full amount unless an error occurs.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

## drop-caches

 drop-caches whattodrop

This instructs the guest kernel to drop its page cache, and/or dentries and inode caches. The parameter whattodrop tells the kernel what precisely to drop, see https://linux-mm.org/Drop_Caches

Setting whattodrop to 3 should drop everything.

This automatically calls sync(2) before the operation, so that the maximum guest memory is freed.

## du

 du path

This command runs the du -s command to estimate file space usage for path.

path can be a file or a directory. If path is a directory then the estimate includes the contents of the directory and all subdirectories (recursively).

The result is the estimated size in kilobytes (ie. units of 1024 bytes).

## e2fsck

 e2fsck device [correct:true|false] [forceall:true|false]

This runs the ext2/ext3 filesystem checker on device. It can take the following optional arguments:

correct

Automatically repair the file system. This option will cause e2fsck to automatically fix any filesystem problems that can be safely fixed without human intervention.

This option may not be specified at the same time as the forceall option.

forceall

Assume an answer of ‘yes’ to all questions; allows e2fsck to be used non-interactively.

This option may not be specified at the same time as the correct option.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## e2fsck-f

 e2fsck-f device

This runs e2fsck -p -f device, ie. runs the ext2/ext3 filesystem checker on device, noninteractively (-p), even if the filesystem appears to be clean (-f).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "e2fsck" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## echo-daemon

 echo-daemon 'words ...'

This command concatenates the list of words passed with single spaces between them and returns the resulting string.

You can use this command to test the connection through to the daemon.

## egrep

 egrep regex path

This calls the external egrep(1) program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## egrepi

 egrepi regex path

This calls the external egrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## equal

 equal file1 file2

This compares the two files file1 and file2 and returns true if their content is exactly equal, or false otherwise.

The external cmp(1) program is used for the comparison.

## exists

 exists path

This returns true if and only if there is a file, directory (or anything) with the given path name.

## extlinux

 extlinux directory

Install the SYSLINUX bootloader on the device mounted at directory. Unlike "syslinux" which requires a FAT filesystem, this can be used on an ext2/3/4 or btrfs filesystem.

The directory parameter can be either a mountpoint, or a directory within the mountpoint.

You also have to mark the partition as "active" ("part-set-bootable") and a Master Boot Record must be installed (eg. using "pwrite-device") on the first sector of the whole disk. The SYSLINUX package comes with some suitable Master Boot Records. See the extlinux(1) man page for further information.

Additional configuration can be supplied to SYSLINUX by placing a file called extlinux.conf on the filesystem under directory. For further information about the contents of this file, see extlinux(1).

This command depends on the feature extlinux. See also "feature-available".

## f2fs-expand

 f2fs-expand device

This expands a f2fs filesystem to match the size of the underlying device.

This command depends on the feature f2fs. See also "feature-available".

## fallocate

 fallocate path len

This command preallocates a file (containing zero bytes) named path of size len bytes. If the file exists already, it is overwritten.

Do not confuse this with the guestfish-specific alloc command which allocates a file in the host and attaches it as a device.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "fallocate64" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## fallocate64

 fallocate64 path len

This command preallocates a file (containing zero bytes) named path of size len bytes. If the file exists already, it is overwritten.

Note that this call allocates disk blocks for the file. To create a sparse file use "truncate-size" instead.

The deprecated call "fallocate" does the same, but owing to an oversight it only allowed 30 bit lengths to be specified, effectively limiting the maximum size of files created through that call to 1GB.

Do not confuse this with the guestfish-specific alloc and sparse commands which create a file in the host and attach it as a device.

## feature-available

 feature-available 'groups ...'

This is the same as "available", but unlike that call it returns a simple true/false boolean result, instead of throwing an exception if a feature is not found. For other documentation see "available".

## fgrep

 fgrep pattern path

This calls the external fgrep(1) program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## fgrepi

 fgrepi pattern path

This calls the external fgrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## file

 file path

This call uses the standard file(1) command to determine the type or contents of the file.

This call will also transparently look inside various types of compressed file.

The exact command which runs is file -zb path. Note in particular that the filename is not prepended to the output (the -b option).

The output depends on the output of the underlying file(1) command and it can change in future in ways beyond our control. In other words, the output is not guaranteed by the ABI.

## file-architecture

 file-architecture filename

This detects the architecture of the binary filename, and returns it if known.

Currently defined architectures are:

"aarch64"

64 bit ARM.

"arm"

32 bit ARM.

"i386"

This string is returned for all 32 bit i386, i486, i586, i686 binaries irrespective of the precise processor requirements of the binary.

"ia64"

Intel Itanium.

"ppc"

32 bit Power PC.

"ppc64"

64 bit Power PC (big endian).

"ppc64le"

64 bit Power PC (little endian).

"riscv32"
"riscv64"
"riscv128"

RISC-V 32-, 64- or 128-bit variants.

"s390"

31 bit IBM S/390.

"s390x"

64 bit IBM S/390.

"sparc"

32 bit SPARC.

"sparc64"

64 bit SPARC V9 and above.

"x86_64"

64 bit x86-64.

Libguestfs may return other architecture strings in future.

The function works on at least the following types of files:

• many types of Un*x and Linux binary

• many types of Un*x and Linux shared library

• Windows Win32 and Win64 binaries

• Windows Win32 and Win64 DLLs

Win32 binaries and DLLs return i386.

Win64 binaries and DLLs return x86_64.

• Linux kernel modules

• Linux new-style initrd images

• some non-x86 Linux vmlinuz kernels

What it can't do currently:

• static libraries (libfoo.a)

• Linux old-style initrd as compressed ext2 filesystem (RHEL 3)

• x86 Linux vmlinuz kernels

x86 vmlinuz images (bzImage format) consist of a mix of 16-, 32- and compressed code, and are horribly hard to unpack. If you want to find the architecture of a kernel, use the architecture of the associated initrd or kernel module(s) instead.

## filesize

 filesize file

This command returns the size of file in bytes.

To get other stats about a file, use "stat", "lstat", "is-dir", "is-file" etc. To get the size of block devices, use "blockdev-getsize64".

## filesystem-available

 filesystem-available filesystem

Check whether libguestfs supports the named filesystem. The argument filesystem is a filesystem name, such as ext3.

You must call "launch" before using this command.

This is mainly useful as a negative test. If this returns true, it doesn't mean that a particular filesystem can be created or mounted, since filesystems can fail for other reasons such as it being a later version of the filesystem, or having incompatible features, or lacking the right mkfs.<fs> tool.

## filesystem-walk

 filesystem-walk device

Walk through the internal structures of a disk partition (eg. /dev/sda1) in order to return a list of all the files and directories stored within.

It is not necessary to mount the disk partition to run this command.

All entries in the filesystem are returned. This function can list deleted or unaccessible files. The entries are not sorted.

The tsk_dirent structure contains the following fields.

tsk_inode

Filesystem reference number of the node. It might be 0 if the node has been deleted.

tsk_type

Basic file type information. See below for a detailed list of values.

tsk_size

File size in bytes. It might be -1 if the node has been deleted.

tsk_name

The file path relative to its directory.

tsk_flags

Bitfield containing extra information regarding the entry. It contains the logical OR of the following values:

0x0001

If set to 1, the file is allocated and visible within the filesystem. Otherwise, the file has been deleted. Under certain circumstances, the function download_inode can be used to recover deleted files.

0x0002

Filesystem such as NTFS and Ext2 or greater, separate the file name from the metadata structure. The bit is set to 1 when the file name is in an unallocated state and the metadata structure is in an allocated one. This generally implies the metadata has been reallocated to a new file. Therefore, information such as file type, file size, timestamps, number of links and symlink target might not correspond with the ones of the original deleted entry.

0x0004

The bit is set to 1 when the file is compressed using filesystem native compression support (NTFS). The API is not able to detect application level compression.

tsk_atime_sec
tsk_atime_nsec
tsk_mtime_sec
tsk_mtime_nsec
tsk_ctime_sec
tsk_ctime_nsec
tsk_crtime_sec
tsk_crtime_nsec

Respectively, access, modification, last status change and creation time in Unix format in seconds and nanoseconds.

tsk_nlink

Number of file names pointing to this entry.

tsk_link

If the entry is a symbolic link, this field will contain the path to the target file.

The tsk_type field will contain one of the following characters:

'b'

Block special

'c'

Char special

'd'

Directory

'f'

FIFO (named pipe)

'l'

'r'

Regular file

's'

Socket

'h'

'w'

Whiteout inode (BSD)

'u'

Unknown file type

This command depends on the feature libtsk. See also "feature-available".

## fill

 fill c len path

This command creates a new file called path. The initial content of the file is len octets of c, where c must be a number in the range [0..255].

To fill a file with zero bytes (sparsely), it is much more efficient to use "truncate-size". To create a file with a pattern of repeating bytes use "fill-pattern".

## fill-dir

 fill-dir dir nr

This function, useful for testing filesystems, creates nr empty files in the directory dir with names 00000000 through nr-1 (ie. each file name is 8 digits long padded with zeroes).

## fill-pattern

 fill-pattern pattern len path

This function is like "fill" except that it creates a new file of length len containing the repeating pattern of bytes in pattern. The pattern is truncated if necessary to ensure the length of the file is exactly len bytes.

## find

 find directory

This command lists out all files and directories, recursively, starting at directory. It is essentially equivalent to running the shell command find directory -print but some post-processing happens on the output, described below.

This returns a list of strings without any prefix. Thus if the directory structure was:

 /tmp/a
/tmp/b
/tmp/c/d

then the returned list from "find" /tmp would be 4 elements:

 a
b
c
c/d

If directory is not a directory, then this command returns an error.

The returned list is sorted.

## find0

 find0 directory (files|-)

This command lists out all files and directories, recursively, starting at directory, placing the resulting list in the external file called files.

This command works the same way as "find" with the following exceptions:

• The resulting list is written to an external file.

• Items (filenames) in the result are separated by \0 characters. See find(1) option -print0.

• The result list is not sorted.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

## find-inode

 find-inode device inode

Searches all the entries associated with the given inode.

For each entry, a tsk_dirent structure is returned. See filesystem_walk for more information about tsk_dirent structures.

This command depends on the feature libtsk. See also "feature-available".

## findfs-label

 findfs-label label

This command searches the filesystems and returns the one which has the given label. An error is returned if no such filesystem can be found.

To find the label of a filesystem, use "vfs-label".

## findfs-uuid

 findfs-uuid uuid

This command searches the filesystems and returns the one which has the given UUID. An error is returned if no such filesystem can be found.

To find the UUID of a filesystem, use "vfs-uuid".

## fsck

 fsck fstype device

This runs the filesystem checker (fsck) on device which should have filesystem type fstype.

The returned integer is the status. See fsck(8) for the list of status codes from fsck.

Notes:

• Multiple status codes can be summed together.

• A non-zero return code can mean "success", for example if errors have been corrected on the filesystem.

• Checking or repairing NTFS volumes is not supported (by linux-ntfs).

This command is entirely equivalent to running fsck -a -t fstype device.

## fstrim

 fstrim mountpoint [offset:N] [length:N] [minimumfreeextent:N]

Trim the free space in the filesystem mounted on mountpoint. The filesystem must be mounted read-write.

The filesystem contents are not affected, but any free space in the filesystem is "trimmed", that is, given back to the host device, thus making disk images more sparse, allowing unused space in qcow2 files to be reused, etc.

This operation requires support in libguestfs, the mounted filesystem, the host filesystem, qemu and the host kernel. If this support isn't present it may give an error or even appear to run but do nothing.

In the case where the kernel vfs driver does not support trimming, this call will fail with errno set to ENOTSUP. Currently this happens when trying to trim FAT filesystems.

See also "zero-free-space". That is a slightly different operation that turns free space in the filesystem into zeroes. It is valid to call "fstrim" either instead of, or after calling "zero-free-space".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature fstrim. See also "feature-available".

## get-append

 get-append

Return the additional kernel options which are added to the libguestfs appliance kernel command line.

If NULL then no options are added.

## get-attach-method

 get-attach-method

Return the current backend.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "get-backend" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## get-autosync

 get-autosync

Get the autosync flag.

## get-backend

 get-backend

Return the current backend.

This handle property was previously called the "attach method".

## get-backend-setting

 get-backend-setting name

Find a backend setting string which is either "name" or begins with "name=". If "name", this returns the string "1". If "name=", this returns the part after the equals sign (which may be an empty string).

If no such setting is found, this function throws an error. The errno (see "last-errno") will be ESRCH in this case.

## get-backend-settings

 get-backend-settings

Return the current backend settings.

This call returns all backend settings strings. If you want to find a single backend setting, see "get-backend-setting".

## get-cachedir

 get-cachedir

Get the directory used by the handle to store the appliance cache.

## get-direct

 get-direct

Return the direct appliance mode flag.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "internal-get-console-socket" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## get-e2attrs

 get-e2attrs file

This returns the file attributes associated with file.

The attributes are a set of bits associated with each inode which affect the behaviour of the file. The attributes are returned as a string of letters (described below). The string may be empty, indicating that no file attributes are set for this file.

These attributes are only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error.

The characters (file attributes) in the returned string are currently:

'A'

When the file is accessed, its atime is not modified.

'a'

The file is append-only.

'c'

The file is compressed on-disk.

'D'

(Directories only.) Changes to this directory are written synchronously to disk.

'd'

The file is not a candidate for backup (see dump(8)).

'E'

The file has compression errors.

'e'

The file is using extents.

'h'

The file is storing its blocks in units of the filesystem blocksize instead of sectors.

'I'

(Directories only.) The directory is using hashed trees.

'i'

The file is immutable. It cannot be modified, deleted or renamed. No link can be created to this file.

'j'

The file is data-journaled.

's'

When the file is deleted, all its blocks will be zeroed.

'S'

Changes to this file are written synchronously to disk.

'T'

(Directories only.) This is a hint to the block allocator that subdirectories contained in this directory should be spread across blocks. If not present, the block allocator will try to group subdirectories together.

't'

For a file, this disables tail-merging. (Not used by upstream implementations of ext2.)

'u'

When the file is deleted, its blocks will be saved, allowing the file to be undeleted.

'X'

The raw contents of the compressed file may be accessed.

'Z'

The compressed file is dirty.

More file attributes may be added to this list later. Not all file attributes may be set for all kinds of files. For detailed information, consult the chattr(1) man page.

Don't confuse these attributes with extended attributes (see "getxattr").

## get-e2generation

 get-e2generation file

This returns the ext2 file generation of a file. The generation (which used to be called the "version") is a number associated with an inode. This is most commonly used by NFS servers.

The generation is only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error.

## get-e2label

 get-e2label device

This returns the ext2/3/4 filesystem label of the filesystem on device.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "vfs-label" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## get-e2uuid

 get-e2uuid device

This returns the ext2/3/4 filesystem UUID of the filesystem on device.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "vfs-uuid" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## get-hv

 get-hv

Return the current hypervisor binary.

This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default qemu binary name.

## get-identifier

 get-identifier

Get the handle identifier. See "set-identifier".

## get-libvirt-requested-credential-challenge

 get-libvirt-requested-credential-challenge index

Get the challenge (provided by libvirt) for the index'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a challenge, this returns the empty string "".

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

## get-libvirt-requested-credential-defresult

 get-libvirt-requested-credential-defresult index

Get the default result (provided by libvirt) for the index'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a default result, this returns the empty string "".

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

## get-libvirt-requested-credential-prompt

 get-libvirt-requested-credential-prompt index

Get the prompt (provided by libvirt) for the index'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a prompt, this returns the empty string "".

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

## get-libvirt-requested-credentials

 get-libvirt-requested-credentials

This should only be called during the event callback for events of type GUESTFS_EVENT_LIBVIRT_AUTH.

Return the list of credentials requested by libvirt. Possible values are a subset of the strings provided when you called "set-libvirt-supported-credentials".

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

## get-memsize

 get-memsize

This gets the memory size in megabytes allocated to the hypervisor.

If "set-memsize" was not called on this handle, and if LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE was not set, then this returns the compiled-in default value for memsize.

## get-network

 get-network

This returns the enable network flag.

## get-path

 get-path

Return the current search path.

This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default path.

## get-pgroup

 get-pgroup

This returns the process group flag.

## pid

 get-pid

Return the process ID of the hypervisor. If there is no hypervisor running, then this will return an error.

This is an internal call used for debugging and testing.

## get-program

 get-program

Get the program name. See "set-program".

## get-qemu

 get-qemu

Return the current hypervisor binary (usually qemu).

This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default qemu binary name.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "get-hv" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## get-recovery-proc

 get-recovery-proc

Return the recovery process enabled flag.

## get-selinux

 get-selinux

This returns the current setting of the selinux flag which is passed to the appliance at boot time. See "set-selinux".

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "selinux-relabel" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## get-smp

 get-smp

This returns the number of virtual CPUs assigned to the appliance.

## get-sockdir

 get-sockdir

Get the directory used by the handle to store temporary socket files.

This is different from "get-tmpdir", as we need shorter paths for sockets (due to the limited buffers of filenames for UNIX sockets), and "get-tmpdir" may be too long for them.

The environment variable XDG_RUNTIME_DIR controls the default value: If XDG_RUNTIME_DIR is set, then that is the default. Else /tmp is the default.

## get-tmpdir

 get-tmpdir

Get the directory used by the handle to store temporary files.

## get-trace

 get-trace

Return the command trace flag.

 get-umask

Return the current umask. By default the umask is 022 unless it has been set by calling "umask".

## get-verbose

 get-verbose

This returns the verbose messages flag.

## getcon

 getcon

This gets the SELinux security context of the daemon.

See the documentation about SELINUX in guestfs(3), and "setcon"

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "selinux-relabel" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature selinux. See also "feature-available".

## getxattr

 getxattr path name

Get a single extended attribute from file path named name. This call follows symlinks. If you want to lookup an extended attribute for the symlink itself, use "lgetxattr".

Normally it is better to get all extended attributes from a file in one go by calling "getxattrs". However some Linux filesystem implementations are buggy and do not provide a way to list out attributes. For these filesystems (notably ntfs-3g) you have to know the names of the extended attributes you want in advance and call this function.

Extended attribute values are blobs of binary data. If there is no extended attribute named name, this returns an error.

This command depends on the feature linuxxattrs. See also "feature-available".

## getxattrs

 getxattrs path

This call lists the extended attributes of the file or directory path.

At the system call level, this is a combination of the listxattr(2) and getxattr(2) calls.

This command depends on the feature linuxxattrs. See also "feature-available".

## glob-expand-opts

 glob-expand pattern [directoryslash:true|false]

This command searches for all the pathnames matching pattern according to the wildcard expansion rules used by the shell.

If no paths match, then this returns an empty list (note: not an error).

It is just a wrapper around the C glob(3) function with flags GLOB_MARK|GLOB_BRACE. See that manual page for more details.

directoryslash controls whether use the GLOB_MARK flag for glob(3), and it defaults to true. It can be explicitly set as off to return no trailing slashes in filenames of directories.

Notice that there is no equivalent command for expanding a device name (eg. /dev/sd*). Use "list-devices", "list-partitions" etc functions instead.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## grep-opts

 grep regex path [extended:true|false] [fixed:true|false] [insensitive:true|false] [compressed:true|false]

This calls the external grep(1) program and returns the matching lines.

The optional flags are:

extended

Use extended regular expressions. This is the same as using the -E flag.

fixed

Match fixed (don't use regular expressions). This is the same as using the -F flag.

insensitive

Match case-insensitive. This is the same as using the -i flag.

compressed

Use zgrep(1) instead of grep(1). This allows the input to be compress- or gzip-compressed.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## grepi

 grepi regex path

This calls the external grep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## grub-install

 grub-install root device

This command installs GRUB 1 (the Grand Unified Bootloader) on device, with the root directory being root.

Notes:

• There is currently no way in the API to install grub2, which is used by most modern Linux guests. It is possible to run the grub2 command from the guest, although see the caveats in "RUNNING COMMANDS" in guestfs(3).

• This uses grub-install(8) from the host. Unfortunately grub is not always compatible with itself, so this only works in rather narrow circumstances. Careful testing with each guest version is advisable.

• If grub-install reports the error "No suitable drive was found in the generated device map." it may be that you need to create a /boot/grub/device.map file first that contains the mapping between grub device names and Linux device names. It is usually sufficient to create a file containing:

 (hd0) /dev/vda

replacing /dev/vda with the name of the installation device.

This command depends on the feature grub. See also "feature-available".

 head path

This command returns up to the first 10 lines of a file as a list of strings.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

 head-n nrlines path

If the parameter nrlines is a positive number, this returns the first nrlines lines of the file path.

If the parameter nrlines is a negative number, this returns lines from the file path, excluding the last nrlines lines.

If the parameter nrlines is zero, this returns an empty list.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## hexdump

 hexdump path

This runs hexdump -C on the given path. The result is the human-readable, canonical hex dump of the file.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## hivex-close

 hivex-close

Close the current hivex handle.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-commit

 hivex-commit filename

Commit (write) changes to the hive.

If the optional filename parameter is null, then the changes are written back to the same hive that was opened. If this is not null then they are written to the alternate filename given and the original hive is left untouched.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

 hivex-node-add-child parent name

Add a child node to parent named name.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-node-children

 hivex-node-children nodeh

Return the list of nodes which are subkeys of nodeh.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-node-delete-child

 hivex-node-delete-child nodeh

Delete nodeh, recursively if necessary.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-node-get-child

 hivex-node-get-child nodeh name

Return the child of nodeh with the name name, if it exists. This can return 0 meaning the name was not found.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-node-get-value

 hivex-node-get-value nodeh key

Return the value attached to nodeh which has the name key, if it exists. This can return 0 meaning the key was not found.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-node-name

 hivex-node-name nodeh

Return the name of nodeh.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-node-parent

 hivex-node-parent nodeh

Return the parent node of nodeh.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-node-set-value

 hivex-node-set-value nodeh key t val

Set or replace a single value under the node nodeh. The key is the name, t is the type, and val is the data.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-node-values

 hivex-node-values nodeh

Return the array of (key, datatype, data) tuples attached to nodeh.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-open

 hivex-open filename [verbose:true|false] [debug:true|false] [write:true|false] [unsafe:true|false]

Open the Windows Registry hive file named filename. If there was any previous hivex handle associated with this guestfs session, then it is closed.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-root

 hivex-root

Return the root node of the hive.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-value-key

 hivex-value-key valueh

Return the key (name) field of a (key, datatype, data) tuple.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-value-string

 hivex-value-string valueh

This calls "hivex-value-value" (which returns the data field from a hivex value tuple). It then assumes that the field is a UTF-16LE string and converts the result to UTF-8 (or if this is not possible, it returns an error).

This is useful for reading strings out of the Windows registry. However it is not foolproof because the registry is not strongly-typed and fields can contain arbitrary or unexpected data.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-value-type

 hivex-value-type valueh

Return the data type field from a (key, datatype, data) tuple.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-value-utf8

 hivex-value-utf8 valueh

This calls "hivex-value-value" (which returns the data field from a hivex value tuple). It then assumes that the field is a UTF-16LE string and converts the result to UTF-8 (or if this is not possible, it returns an error).

This is useful for reading strings out of the Windows registry. However it is not foolproof because the registry is not strongly-typed and fields can contain arbitrary or unexpected data.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "hivex-value-string" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## hivex-value-value

 hivex-value-value valueh

Return the data field of a (key, datatype, data) tuple.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command depends on the feature hivex. See also "feature-available".

## initrd-cat

 initrd-cat initrdpath filename

This command unpacks the file filename from the initrd file called initrdpath. The filename must be given without the initial / character.

For example, in guestfish you could use the following command to examine the boot script (usually called /init) contained in a Linux initrd or initramfs image:

 initrd-cat /boot/initrd-<version>.img init

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## initrd-list

 initrd-list path

This command lists out files contained in an initrd.

The files are listed without any initial / character. The files are listed in the order they appear (not necessarily alphabetical). Directory names are listed as separate items.

Old Linux kernels (2.4 and earlier) used a compressed ext2 filesystem as initrd. We only support the newer initramfs format (compressed cpio files).

 inotify-add-watch path mask

Watch path for the events listed in mask.

Note that if path is a directory then events within that directory are watched, but this does not happen recursively (in subdirectories).

Note for non-C or non-Linux callers: the inotify events are defined by the Linux kernel ABI and are listed in /usr/include/sys/inotify.h.

This command depends on the feature inotify. See also "feature-available".

## inotify-close

 inotify-close

This closes the inotify handle which was previously opened by inotify_init. It removes all watches, throws away any pending events, and deallocates all resources.

This command depends on the feature inotify. See also "feature-available".

## inotify-files

 inotify-files

This function is a helpful wrapper around "inotify-read" which just returns a list of pathnames of objects that were touched. The returned pathnames are sorted and deduplicated.

This command depends on the feature inotify. See also "feature-available".

## inotify-init

 inotify-init maxevents

This command creates a new inotify handle. The inotify subsystem can be used to notify events which happen to objects in the guest filesystem.

maxevents is the maximum number of events which will be queued up between calls to "inotify-read" or "inotify-files". If this is passed as 0, then the kernel (or previously set) default is used. For Linux 2.6.29 the default was 16384 events. Beyond this limit, the kernel throws away events, but records the fact that it threw them away by setting a flag IN_Q_OVERFLOW in the returned structure list (see "inotify-read").

Before any events are generated, you have to add some watches to the internal watch list. See: "inotify-add-watch" and "inotify-rm-watch".

Queued up events should be read periodically by calling "inotify-read" (or "inotify-files" which is just a helpful wrapper around "inotify-read"). If you don't read the events out often enough then you risk the internal queue overflowing.

The handle should be closed after use by calling "inotify-close". This also removes any watches automatically.

See also inotify(7) for an overview of the inotify interface as exposed by the Linux kernel, which is roughly what we expose via libguestfs. Note that there is one global inotify handle per libguestfs instance.

This command depends on the feature inotify. See also "feature-available".

 inotify-read

Return the complete queue of events that have happened since the previous read call.

If no events have happened, this returns an empty list.

Note: In order to make sure that all events have been read, you must call this function repeatedly until it returns an empty list. The reason is that the call will read events up to the maximum appliance-to-host message size and leave remaining events in the queue.

This command depends on the feature inotify. See also "feature-available".

## inotify-rm-watch

 inotify-rm-watch wd

Remove a previously defined inotify watch. See "inotify-add-watch".

This command depends on the feature inotify. See also "feature-available".

## inspect-get-arch

 inspect-get-arch root

This returns the architecture of the inspected operating system. The possible return values are listed under "file-architecture".

If the architecture could not be determined, then the string unknown is returned.

## inspect-get-distro

 inspect-get-distro root

This returns the distro (distribution) of the inspected operating system.

Currently defined distros are:

"alpinelinux"

Alpine Linux.

"altlinux"

ALT Linux.

"archlinux"

Arch Linux.

"buildroot"

Buildroot-derived distro, but not one we specifically recognize.

"centos"

CentOS.

"cirros"

Cirros.

"coreos"

CoreOS.

"debian"

Debian.

"fedora"

Fedora.

"freebsd"

FreeBSD.

"freedos"

FreeDOS.

"frugalware"

Frugalware.

"gentoo"

Gentoo.

"kalilinux"

Kali Linux.

"kylin"

Kylin.

"linuxmint"

Linux Mint.

"mageia"

Mageia.

"mandriva"

Mandriva.

"meego"

MeeGo.

"msdos"

Microsoft DOS.

"neokylin"

NeoKylin.

"netbsd"

NetBSD.

"openbsd"

OpenBSD.

"openmandriva"

OpenMandriva Lx.

"opensuse"

OpenSUSE.

"oraclelinux"

Oracle Linux.

"pardus"

Pardus.

"pldlinux"

PLD Linux.

"redhat-based"

Some Red Hat-derived distro.

"rhel"

Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

"scientificlinux"

Scientific Linux.

"slackware"

Slackware.

"sles"

SuSE Linux Enterprise Server or Desktop.

"suse-based"

Some openSuSE-derived distro.

"ttylinux"

ttylinux.

"ubuntu"

Ubuntu.

"unknown"

The distro could not be determined.

"voidlinux"

Void Linux.

"windows"

Windows does not have distributions. This string is returned if the OS type is Windows.

Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string.

## inspect-get-drive-mappings

 inspect-get-drive-mappings root

This call is useful for Windows which uses a primitive system of assigning drive letters (like C:\) to partitions. This inspection API examines the Windows Registry to find out how disks/partitions are mapped to drive letters, and returns a hash table as in the example below:

 C      =>     /dev/vda2
E      =>     /dev/vdb1
F      =>     /dev/vdc1

Note that keys are drive letters. For Windows, the key is case insensitive and just contains the drive letter, without the customary colon separator character.

In future we may support other operating systems that also used drive letters, but the keys for those might not be case insensitive and might be longer than 1 character. For example in OS-9, hard drives were named h0, h1 etc.

For Windows guests, currently only hard drive mappings are returned. Removable disks (eg. DVD-ROMs) are ignored.

For guests that do not use drive mappings, or if the drive mappings could not be determined, this returns an empty hash table.

## inspect-get-filesystems

 inspect-get-filesystems root

This returns a list of all the filesystems that we think are associated with this operating system. This includes the root filesystem, other ordinary filesystems, and non-mounted devices like swap partitions.

In the case of a multi-boot virtual machine, it is possible for a filesystem to be shared between operating systems.

## inspect-get-format

 inspect-get-format root

Before libguestfs 1.38, there was some unreliable support for detecting installer CDs. This API would return:

installed

This is an installed operating system.

installer

The disk image being inspected is not an installed operating system, but a bootable install disk, live CD, or similar.

unknown

The format of this disk image is not known.

In libguestfs ≥ 1.38, this only returns installed. Use libosinfo directly to detect installer CDs.

This function is deprecated. There is no replacement. Consult the API documentation in guestfs(3) for further information.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## inspect-get-hostname

 inspect-get-hostname root

This function returns the hostname of the operating system as found by inspection of the guest’s configuration files.

If the hostname could not be determined, then the string unknown is returned.

## inspect-get-icon

 inspect-get-icon root [favicon:true|false] [highquality:true|false]

This function returns an icon corresponding to the inspected operating system. The icon is returned as a buffer containing a PNG image (re-encoded to PNG if necessary).

If it was not possible to get an icon this function returns a zero-length (non-NULL) buffer. Callers must check for this case.

Libguestfs will start by looking for a file called /etc/favicon.png or C:\etc\favicon.png and if it has the correct format, the contents of this file will be returned. You can disable favicons by passing the optional favicon boolean as false (default is true).

If finding the favicon fails, then we look in other places in the guest for a suitable icon.

If the optional highquality boolean is true then only high quality icons are returned, which means only icons of high resolution with an alpha channel. The default (false) is to return any icon we can, even if it is of substandard quality.

Notes:

• Unlike most other inspection API calls, the guest’s disks must be mounted up before you call this, since it needs to read information from the guest filesystem during the call.

• Security: The icon data comes from the untrusted guest, and should be treated with caution. PNG files have been known to contain exploits. Ensure that libpng (or other relevant libraries) are fully up to date before trying to process or display the icon.

• The PNG image returned can be any size. It might not be square. Libguestfs tries to return the largest, highest quality icon available. The application must scale the icon to the required size.

• Extracting icons from Windows guests requires the external wrestool(1) program from the icoutils package, and several programs (bmptopnm(1), pnmtopng(1), pamcut(1)) from the netpbm package. These must be installed separately.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## inspect-get-major-version

 inspect-get-major-version root

This returns the major version number of the inspected operating system.

Windows uses a consistent versioning scheme which is not reflected in the popular public names used by the operating system. Notably the operating system known as "Windows 7" is really version 6.1 (ie. major = 6, minor = 1). You can find out the real versions corresponding to releases of Windows by consulting Wikipedia or MSDN.

If the version could not be determined, then 0 is returned.

## inspect-get-minor-version

 inspect-get-minor-version root

This returns the minor version number of the inspected operating system.

If the version could not be determined, then 0 is returned.

## inspect-get-mountpoints

 inspect-get-mountpoints root

This returns a hash of where we think the filesystems associated with this operating system should be mounted. Callers should note that this is at best an educated guess made by reading configuration files such as /etc/fstab. In particular note that this may return filesystems which are non-existent or not mountable and callers should be prepared to handle or ignore failures if they try to mount them.

Each element in the returned hashtable has a key which is the path of the mountpoint (eg. /boot) and a value which is the filesystem that would be mounted there (eg. /dev/sda1).

Non-mounted devices such as swap devices are not returned in this list.

For operating systems like Windows which still use drive letters, this call will only return an entry for the first drive "mounted on" /. For information about the mapping of drive letters to partitions, see "inspect-get-drive-mappings".

## inspect-get-osinfo

 inspect-get-osinfo root

This function returns a possible short ID for libosinfo corresponding to the guest.

Note: The returned ID is only a guess by libguestfs, and nothing ensures that it actually exists in osinfo-db.

If no ID could not be determined, then the string unknown is returned.

## inspect-get-package-format

 inspect-get-package-format root

This function and "inspect-get-package-management" return the package format and package management tool used by the inspected operating system. For example for Fedora these functions would return rpm (package format), and yum or dnf (package management).

This returns the string unknown if we could not determine the package format or if the operating system does not have a real packaging system (eg. Windows).

Possible strings include: rpm, deb, ebuild, pisi, pacman, pkgsrc, apk, xbps. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings.

## inspect-get-package-management

 inspect-get-package-management root

"inspect-get-package-format" and this function return the package format and package management tool used by the inspected operating system. For example for Fedora these functions would return rpm (package format), and yum or dnf (package management).

This returns the string unknown if we could not determine the package management tool or if the operating system does not have a real packaging system (eg. Windows).

Possible strings include: yum, dnf, up2date, apt (for all Debian derivatives), portage, pisi, pacman, urpmi, zypper, apk, xbps. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings.

## inspect-get-product-name

 inspect-get-product-name root

This returns the product name of the inspected operating system. The product name is generally some freeform string which can be displayed to the user, but should not be parsed by programs.

If the product name could not be determined, then the string unknown is returned.

## inspect-get-product-variant

 inspect-get-product-variant root

This returns the product variant of the inspected operating system.

For Windows guests, this returns the contents of the Registry key HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion InstallationType which is usually a string such as Client or Server (other values are possible). This can be used to distinguish consumer and enterprise versions of Windows that have the same version number (for example, Windows 7 and Windows 2008 Server are both version 6.1, but the former is Client and the latter is Server).

For enterprise Linux guests, in future we intend this to return the product variant such as Desktop, Server and so on. But this is not implemented at present.

If the product variant could not be determined, then the string unknown is returned.

## inspect-get-roots

 inspect-get-roots

This function is a convenient way to get the list of root devices, as returned from a previous call to "inspect-os", but without redoing the whole inspection process.

This returns an empty list if either no root devices were found or the caller has not called "inspect-os".

## inspect-get-type

 inspect-get-type root

This returns the type of the inspected operating system. Currently defined types are:

"linux"

Any Linux-based operating system.

"windows"

Any Microsoft Windows operating system.

"freebsd"

FreeBSD.

"netbsd"

NetBSD.

"openbsd"

OpenBSD.

"hurd"

GNU/Hurd.

"dos"

MS-DOS, FreeDOS and others.

"minix"

MINIX.

"unknown"

The operating system type could not be determined.

Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string.

## inspect-get-windows-current-control-set

 inspect-get-windows-current-control-set root

This returns the Windows CurrentControlSet of the inspected guest. The CurrentControlSet is a registry key name such as ControlSet001.

This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the Registry could be examined by inspection. If this is not the case then an error is returned.

## inspect-get-windows-software-hive

 inspect-get-windows-software-hive root

This returns the path to the hive (binary Windows Registry file) corresponding to HKLM\SOFTWARE.

This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the guest has a software hive file with the right name. If this is not the case then an error is returned. This call does not check that the hive is a valid Windows Registry hive.

You can use "hivex-open" to read or write to the hive.

## inspect-get-windows-system-hive

 inspect-get-windows-system-hive root

This returns the path to the hive (binary Windows Registry file) corresponding to HKLM\SYSTEM.

This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the guest has a system hive file with the right name. If this is not the case then an error is returned. This call does not check that the hive is a valid Windows Registry hive.

You can use "hivex-open" to read or write to the hive.

## inspect-get-windows-systemroot

 inspect-get-windows-systemroot root

This returns the Windows systemroot of the inspected guest. The systemroot is a directory path such as /WINDOWS.

This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the systemroot could be determined by inspection. If this is not the case then an error is returned.

## inspect-is-live

 inspect-is-live root

This is deprecated and always returns false.

This function is deprecated. There is no replacement. Consult the API documentation in guestfs(3) for further information.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## inspect-is-multipart

 inspect-is-multipart root

This is deprecated and always returns false.

This function is deprecated. There is no replacement. Consult the API documentation in guestfs(3) for further information.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## inspect-is-netinst

 inspect-is-netinst root

This is deprecated and always returns false.

This function is deprecated. There is no replacement. Consult the API documentation in guestfs(3) for further information.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## inspect-list-applications

 inspect-list-applications root

Return the list of applications installed in the operating system.

Note: This call works differently from other parts of the inspection API. You have to call "inspect-os", then "inspect-get-mountpoints", then mount up the disks, before calling this. Listing applications is a significantly more difficult operation which requires access to the full filesystem. Also note that unlike the other "inspect-get-*" calls which are just returning data cached in the libguestfs handle, this call actually reads parts of the mounted filesystems during the call.

This returns an empty list if the inspection code was not able to determine the list of applications.

The application structure contains the following fields:

app_name

The name of the application. For Linux guests, this is the package name.

app_display_name

The display name of the application, sometimes localized to the install language of the guest operating system.

If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Callers needing to display something can use app_name instead.

app_epoch

For package managers which use epochs, this contains the epoch of the package (an integer). If unavailable, this is returned as 0.

app_version

The version string of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_release

The release string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_install_path

The installation path of the application (on operating systems such as Windows which use installation paths). This path is in the format used by the guest operating system, it is not a libguestfs path.

If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_trans_path

The install path translated into a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_publisher

The name of the publisher of the application, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_url

The URL (eg. upstream URL) of the application. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_source_package

For packaging systems which support this, the name of the source package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_summary

A short (usually one line) description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_description

A longer description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "inspect-list-applications2" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## inspect-list-applications2

 inspect-list-applications2 root

Return the list of applications installed in the operating system.

Note: This call works differently from other parts of the inspection API. You have to call "inspect-os", then "inspect-get-mountpoints", then mount up the disks, before calling this. Listing applications is a significantly more difficult operation which requires access to the full filesystem. Also note that unlike the other "inspect-get-*" calls which are just returning data cached in the libguestfs handle, this call actually reads parts of the mounted filesystems during the call.

This returns an empty list if the inspection code was not able to determine the list of applications.

The application structure contains the following fields:

app2_name

The name of the application. For Linux guests, this is the package name.

app2_display_name

The display name of the application, sometimes localized to the install language of the guest operating system.

If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Callers needing to display something can use app2_name instead.

app2_epoch

For package managers which use epochs, this contains the epoch of the package (an integer). If unavailable, this is returned as 0.

app2_version

The version string of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_release

The release string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_arch

The architecture string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_install_path

The installation path of the application (on operating systems such as Windows which use installation paths). This path is in the format used by the guest operating system, it is not a libguestfs path.

If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_trans_path

The install path translated into a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_publisher

The name of the publisher of the application, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_url

The URL (eg. upstream URL) of the application. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_source_package

For packaging systems which support this, the name of the source package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_summary

A short (usually one line) description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_description

A longer description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

## inspect-os

 inspect-os

This function uses other libguestfs functions and certain heuristics to inspect the disk(s) (usually disks belonging to a virtual machine), looking for operating systems.

The list returned is empty if no operating systems were found.

If one operating system was found, then this returns a list with a single element, which is the name of the root filesystem of this operating system. It is also possible for this function to return a list containing more than one element, indicating a dual-boot or multi-boot virtual machine, with each element being the root filesystem of one of the operating systems.

You can pass the root string(s) returned to other "inspect-get-*" functions in order to query further information about each operating system, such as the name and version.

This function uses other libguestfs features such as "mount-ro" and "umount-all" in order to mount and unmount filesystems and look at the contents. This should be called with no disks currently mounted. The function may also use Augeas, so any existing Augeas handle will be closed.

This function cannot decrypt encrypted disks. The caller must do that first (supplying the necessary keys) if the disk is encrypted.

## is-blockdev-opts

 is-blockdev path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a block device with the given path name.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a block device also causes the function to return true.

This call only looks at files within the guest filesystem. Libguestfs partitions and block devices (eg. /dev/sda) cannot be used as the path parameter of this call.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## is-chardev-opts

 is-chardev path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a character device with the given path name.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a chardev also causes the function to return true.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## is-config

 is-config

This returns true iff this handle is being configured (in the CONFIG state).

## is-dir-opts

 is-dir path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a directory with the given path name. Note that it returns false for other objects like files.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a directory also causes the function to return true.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## is-fifo-opts

 is-fifo path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a FIFO (named pipe) with the given path name.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a FIFO also causes the function to return true.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## is-file-opts

 is-file path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a regular file with the given path name. Note that it returns false for other objects like directories.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a file also causes the function to return true.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## is-lv

 is-lv mountable

This command tests whether mountable is a logical volume, and returns true iff this is the case.

## is-socket-opts

 is-socket path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a Unix domain socket with the given path name.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a socket also causes the function to return true.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

 is-symlink path

This returns true if and only if there is a symbolic link with the given path name.

## is-whole-device

 is-whole-device device

This returns true if and only if device refers to a whole block device. That is, not a partition or a logical device.

## is-zero

 is-zero path

This returns true iff the file exists and the file is empty or it contains all zero bytes.

## is-zero-device

 is-zero-device device

This returns true iff the device exists and contains all zero bytes.

Note that for large devices this can take a long time to run.

## isoinfo

 isoinfo isofile

This is the same as "isoinfo-device" except that it works for an ISO file located inside some other mounted filesystem. Note that in the common case where you have added an ISO file as a libguestfs device, you would not call this. Instead you would call "isoinfo-device".

## isoinfo-device

 isoinfo-device device

device is an ISO device. This returns a struct of information read from the primary volume descriptor (the ISO equivalent of the superblock) of the device.

Usually it is more efficient to use the isoinfo(1) command with the -d option on the host to analyze ISO files, instead of going through libguestfs.

For information on the primary volume descriptor fields, see https://wiki.osdev.org/ISO_9660#The_Primary_Volume_Descriptor

## journal-close

 journal-close

Close the journal handle.

This command depends on the feature journal. See also "feature-available".

## journal-get

 journal-get

Read the current journal entry. This returns all the fields in the journal as a set of (attrname, attrval) pairs. The attrname is the field name (a string).

The attrval is the field value (a binary blob, often but not always a string). Please note that attrval is a byte array, not a \0-terminated C string.

The length of data may be truncated to the data threshold (see: "journal-set-data-threshold", "journal-get-data-threshold").

If you set the data threshold to unlimited (0) then this call can read a journal entry of any size, ie. it is not limited by the libguestfs protocol.

This command depends on the feature journal. See also "feature-available".

## journal-get-data-threshold

 journal-get-data-threshold

Get the current data threshold for reading journal entries. This is a hint to the journal that it may truncate data fields to this size when reading them (note also that it may not truncate them). If this returns 0, then the threshold is unlimited.

This command depends on the feature journal. See also "feature-available".

## journal-get-realtime-usec

 journal-get-realtime-usec

Get the realtime (wallclock) timestamp of the current journal entry.

This command depends on the feature journal. See also "feature-available".

## journal-next

 journal-next

Move to the next journal entry. You have to call this at least once after opening the handle before you are able to read data.

The returned boolean tells you if there are any more journal records to read. true means you can read the next record (eg. using "journal-get"), and false means you have reached the end of the journal.

This command depends on the feature journal. See also "feature-available".

## journal-open

 journal-open directory

Open the systemd journal located in directory. Any previously opened journal handle is closed.

The contents of the journal can be read using "journal-next" and "journal-get".

After you have finished using the journal, you should close the handle by calling "journal-close".

This command depends on the feature journal. See also "feature-available".

## journal-set-data-threshold

 journal-set-data-threshold threshold

Set the data threshold for reading journal entries. This is a hint to the journal that it may truncate data fields to this size when reading them (note also that it may not truncate them). If you set this to 0, then the threshold is unlimited.

This command depends on the feature journal. See also "feature-available".

## journal-skip

 journal-skip skip

Skip forwards (skip ≥ 0) or backwards (skip < 0) in the journal.

The number of entries actually skipped is returned (note rskip ≥ 0). If this is not the same as the absolute value of the skip parameter (|skip|) you passed in then it means you have reached the end or the start of the journal.

This command depends on the feature journal. See also "feature-available".

## kill-subprocess

 kill-subprocess

This kills the hypervisor.

Do not call this. See: "shutdown" instead.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "shutdown" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## run

 launch

You should call this after configuring the handle (eg. adding drives) but before performing any actions.

Do not call "launch" twice on the same handle. Although it will not give an error (for historical reasons), the precise behaviour when you do this is not well defined. Handles are very cheap to create, so create a new one for each launch.

## lchown

 lchown owner group path

Change the file owner to owner and group to group. This is like "chown" but if path is a symlink then the link itself is changed, not the target.

Only numeric uid and gid are supported. If you want to use names, you will need to locate and parse the password file yourself (Augeas support makes this relatively easy).

## ldmtool-create-all

 ldmtool-create-all

This function scans all block devices looking for Windows dynamic disk volumes and partitions, and creates devices for any that were found.

Call "list-ldm-volumes" and "list-ldm-partitions" to return all devices.

Note that you don't normally need to call this explicitly, since it is done automatically at "launch" time. However you might want to call this function if you have hotplugged disks or have just created a Windows dynamic disk.

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## ldmtool-diskgroup-disks

 ldmtool-diskgroup-disks diskgroup

Return the disks in a Windows dynamic disk group. The diskgroup parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by "ldmtool-scan".

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## ldmtool-diskgroup-name

 ldmtool-diskgroup-name diskgroup

Return the name of a Windows dynamic disk group. The diskgroup parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by "ldmtool-scan".

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## ldmtool-diskgroup-volumes

 ldmtool-diskgroup-volumes diskgroup

Return the volumes in a Windows dynamic disk group. The diskgroup parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by "ldmtool-scan".

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## ldmtool-remove-all

 ldmtool-remove-all

This is essentially the opposite of "ldmtool-create-all". It removes the device mapper mappings for all Windows dynamic disk volumes

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## ldmtool-scan

 ldmtool-scan

This function scans for Windows dynamic disks. It returns a list of identifiers (GUIDs) for all disk groups that were found. These identifiers can be passed to other "ldmtool-*" functions.

This function scans all block devices. To scan a subset of block devices, call "ldmtool-scan-devices" instead.

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## ldmtool-scan-devices

 ldmtool-scan-devices 'devices ...'

This function scans for Windows dynamic disks. It returns a list of identifiers (GUIDs) for all disk groups that were found. These identifiers can be passed to other "ldmtool-*" functions.

The parameter devices is a list of block devices which are scanned. If this list is empty, all block devices are scanned.

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## ldmtool-volume-hint

 ldmtool-volume-hint diskgroup volume

Return the hint field of the volume named volume in the disk group with GUID diskgroup. This may not be defined, in which case the empty string is returned. The hint field is often, though not always, the name of a Windows drive, eg. E:.

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## ldmtool-volume-partitions

 ldmtool-volume-partitions diskgroup volume

Return the list of partitions in the volume named volume in the disk group with GUID diskgroup.

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## ldmtool-volume-type

 ldmtool-volume-type diskgroup volume

Return the type of the volume named volume in the disk group with GUID diskgroup.

Possible volume types that can be returned here include: simple, spanned, striped, mirrored, raid5. Other types may also be returned.

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## lgetxattr

 lgetxattr path name

Get a single extended attribute from file path named name. If path is a symlink, then this call returns an extended attribute from the symlink.

Normally it is better to get all extended attributes from a file in one go by calling "getxattrs". However some Linux filesystem implementations are buggy and do not provide a way to list out attributes. For these filesystems (notably ntfs-3g) you have to know the names of the extended attributes you want in advance and call this function.

Extended attribute values are blobs of binary data. If there is no extended attribute named name, this returns an error.

This command depends on the feature linuxxattrs. See also "feature-available".

## lgetxattrs

 lgetxattrs path

This is the same as "getxattrs", but if path is a symbolic link, then it returns the extended attributes of the link itself.

This command depends on the feature linuxxattrs. See also "feature-available".

## list-9p

 list-9p

List all 9p filesystems attached to the guest. A list of mount tags is returned.

## list-devices

 list-devices

List all the block devices.

The full block device names are returned, eg. /dev/sda.

## list-disk-labels

 list-disk-labels

If you add drives using the optional label parameter of "add-drive-opts", you can use this call to map between disk labels, and raw block device and partition names (like /dev/sda and /dev/sda1).

This returns a hashtable, where keys are the disk labels (without the /dev/disk/guestfs prefix), and the values are the full raw block device and partition names (eg. /dev/sda and /dev/sda1).

## list-dm-devices

 list-dm-devices

List all device mapper devices.

The returned list contains /dev/mapper/* devices, eg. ones created by a previous call to "luks-open".

Device mapper devices which correspond to logical volumes are not returned in this list. Call "lvs" if you want to list logical volumes.

## list-filesystems

 list-filesystems

This inspection command looks for filesystems on partitions, block devices and logical volumes, returning a list of mountables containing filesystems and their type.

The return value is a hash, where the keys are the devices containing filesystems, and the values are the filesystem types. For example:

 "/dev/sda1" => "ntfs"
"/dev/sda2" => "ext2"
"/dev/vg_guest/lv_root" => "ext4"
"/dev/vg_guest/lv_swap" => "swap"

The key is not necessarily a block device. It may also be an opaque ‘mountable’ string which can be passed to "mount".

The value can have the special value "unknown", meaning the content of the device is undetermined or empty. "swap" means a Linux swap partition.

In libguestfs ≤ 1.36 this command ran other libguestfs commands, which might have included "mount" and "umount", and therefore you had to use this soon after launch and only when nothing else was mounted. This restriction is removed in libguestfs ≥ 1.38.

Not all of the filesystems returned will be mountable. In particular, swap partitions are returned in the list. Also this command does not check that each filesystem found is valid and mountable, and some filesystems might be mountable but require special options. Filesystems may not all belong to a single logical operating system (use "inspect-os" to look for OSes).

## list-ldm-partitions

 list-ldm-partitions

This function returns all Windows dynamic disk partitions that were found at launch time. It returns a list of device names.

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## list-ldm-volumes

 list-ldm-volumes

This function returns all Windows dynamic disk volumes that were found at launch time. It returns a list of device names.

This command depends on the feature ldm. See also "feature-available".

## list-md-devices

 list-md-devices

List all Linux md devices.

## list-partitions

 list-partitions

List all the partitions detected on all block devices.

The full partition device names are returned, eg. /dev/sda1

This does not return logical volumes. For that you will need to call "lvs".

## ll

 ll directory

List the files in directory (relative to the root directory, there is no cwd) in the format of ls -la.

This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string.

## llz

 llz directory

List the files in directory in the format of ls -laZ.

This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "lgetxattrs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## ln

 ln target linkname

This command creates a hard link.

## ln-f

 ln-f target linkname

This command creates a hard link, removing the link linkname if it exists already.

## ln-s

 ln-s target linkname

This command creates a symbolic link using the ln -s command.

## ln-sf

 ln-sf target linkname

This command creates a symbolic link using the ln -sf command, The -f option removes the link (linkname) if it exists already.

## lremovexattr

 lremovexattr xattr path

This is the same as "removexattr", but if path is a symbolic link, then it removes an extended attribute of the link itself.

This command depends on the feature linuxxattrs. See also "feature-available".

## ls

 ls directory

List the files in directory (relative to the root directory, there is no cwd). The . and .. entries are not returned, but hidden files are shown.

## ls0

 ls0 dir (filenames|-)

This specialized command is used to get a listing of the filenames in the directory dir. The list of filenames is written to the local file filenames (on the host).

In the output file, the filenames are separated by \0 characters.

. and .. are not returned. The filenames are not sorted.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

## lsetxattr

 lsetxattr xattr val vallen path

This is the same as "setxattr", but if path is a symbolic link, then it sets an extended attribute of the link itself.

This command depends on the feature linuxxattrs. See also "feature-available".

## lstat

 lstat path

Returns file information for the given path.

This is the same as "stat" except that if path is a symbolic link, then the link is stat-ed, not the file it refers to.

This is the same as the lstat(2) system call.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "lstatns" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## lstatlist

 lstatlist path 'names ...'

This call allows you to perform the "lstat" operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory path. names is the list of files from this directory.

On return you get a list of stat structs, with a one-to-one correspondence to the names list. If any name did not exist or could not be lstat'd, then the st_ino field of that structure is set to -1.

This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also "lxattrlist" for a similarly efficient call for getting extended attributes.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "lstatnslist" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## lstatns

 lstatns path

Returns file information for the given path.

This is the same as "statns" except that if path is a symbolic link, then the link is stat-ed, not the file it refers to.

This is the same as the lstat(2) system call.

## lstatnslist

 lstatnslist path 'names ...'

This call allows you to perform the "lstatns" operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory path. names is the list of files from this directory.

On return you get a list of stat structs, with a one-to-one correspondence to the names list. If any name did not exist or could not be lstat'd, then the st_ino field of that structure is set to -1.

This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also "lxattrlist" for a similarly efficient call for getting extended attributes.

 luks-add-key device keyslot

This command adds a new key on LUKS device device. key is any existing key, and is used to access the device. newkey is the new key to add. keyslot is the key slot that will be replaced.

Note that if keyslot already contains a key, then this command will fail. You have to use "luks-kill-slot" first to remove that key.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## luks-close

 luks-close device

This closes a LUKS device that was created earlier by "luks-open" or "luks-open-ro". The device parameter must be the name of the LUKS mapping device (ie. /dev/mapper/mapname) and not the name of the underlying block device.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "cryptsetup-close" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## luks-format

 luks-format device keyslot

This command erases existing data on device and formats the device as a LUKS encrypted device. key is the initial key, which is added to key slot keyslot. (LUKS supports 8 key slots, numbered 0-7).

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## luks-format-cipher

 luks-format-cipher device keyslot cipher

This command is the same as "luks-format" but it also allows you to set the cipher used.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## luks-kill-slot

 luks-kill-slot device keyslot

This command deletes the key in key slot keyslot from the encrypted LUKS device device. key must be one of the other keys.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## luks-open

 luks-open device mapname

This command opens a block device which has been encrypted according to the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) standard.

device is the encrypted block device or partition.

The caller must supply one of the keys associated with the LUKS block device, in the key parameter.

This creates a new block device called /dev/mapper/mapname. Reads and writes to this block device are decrypted from and encrypted to the underlying device respectively.

If this block device contains LVM volume groups, then calling "lvm-scan" with the activate parameter true will make them visible.

Use "list-dm-devices" to list all device mapper devices.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "cryptsetup-open" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## luks-open-ro

 luks-open-ro device mapname

This is the same as "luks-open" except that a read-only mapping is created.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "cryptsetup-open" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## luks-uuid

 luks-uuid device

This returns the UUID of the LUKS device device.

This command depends on the feature luks. See also "feature-available".

## lvcreate

 lvcreate logvol volgroup mbytes

This creates an LVM logical volume called logvol on the volume group volgroup, with size megabytes.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## lvcreate-free

 lvcreate-free logvol volgroup percent

Create an LVM logical volume called /dev/volgroup/logvol, using approximately percent % of the free space remaining in the volume group. Most usefully, when percent is 100 this will create the largest possible LV.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## lvm-canonical-lv-name

 lvm-canonical-lv-name lvname

This converts alternative naming schemes for LVs that you might find to the canonical name. For example, /dev/mapper/VG-LV is converted to /dev/VG/LV.

This command returns an error if the lvname parameter does not refer to a logical volume. In this case errno will be set to EINVAL.

## lvm-clear-filter

 lvm-clear-filter

This undoes the effect of "lvm-set-filter". LVM will be able to see every block device.

This command also clears the LVM cache and performs a volume group scan.

## lvm-remove-all

 lvm-remove-all

This command removes all LVM logical volumes, volume groups and physical volumes.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## lvm-scan

 lvm-scan true|false

This scans all block devices and rebuilds the list of LVM physical volumes, volume groups and logical volumes.

If the activate parameter is true then newly found volume groups and logical volumes are activated, meaning the LV /dev/VG/LV devices become visible.

When a libguestfs handle is launched it scans for existing devices, so you do not normally need to use this API. However it is useful when you have added a new device or deleted an existing device (such as when the "luks-open" API is used).

## lvm-set-filter

 lvm-set-filter 'devices ...'

This sets the LVM device filter so that LVM will only be able to "see" the block devices in the list devices, and will ignore all other attached block devices.

Where disk image(s) contain duplicate PVs or VGs, this command is useful to get LVM to ignore the duplicates, otherwise LVM can get confused. Note also there are two types of duplication possible: either cloned PVs/VGs which have identical UUIDs; or VGs that are not cloned but just happen to have the same name. In normal operation you cannot create this situation, but you can do it outside LVM, eg. by cloning disk images or by bit twiddling inside the LVM metadata.

This command also clears the LVM cache and performs a volume group scan.

You can filter whole block devices or individual partitions.

You cannot use this if any VG is currently in use (eg. contains a mounted filesystem), even if you are not filtering out that VG.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## lvremove

 lvremove device

Remove an LVM logical volume device, where device is the path to the LV, such as /dev/VG/LV.

You can also remove all LVs in a volume group by specifying the VG name, /dev/VG.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## lvrename

 lvrename logvol newlogvol

Rename a logical volume logvol with the new name newlogvol.

## lvresize

 lvresize device mbytes

This resizes (expands or shrinks) an existing LVM logical volume to mbytes. When reducing, data in the reduced part is lost.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## lvresize-free

 lvresize-free lv percent

This expands an existing logical volume lv so that it fills pc % of the remaining free space in the volume group. Commonly you would call this with pc = 100 which expands the logical volume as much as possible, using all remaining free space in the volume group.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## lvs

 lvs

List all the logical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the lvs(8) command.

This returns a list of the logical volume device names (eg. /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00).

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## lvs-full

 lvs-full

List all the logical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the lvs(8) command. The "full" version includes all fields.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## lvuuid

 lvuuid device

This command returns the UUID of the LVM LV device.

## lxattrlist

 lxattrlist path 'names ...'

This call allows you to get the extended attributes of multiple files, where all files are in the directory path. names is the list of files from this directory.

On return you get a flat list of xattr structs which must be interpreted sequentially. The first xattr struct always has a zero-length attrname. attrval in this struct is zero-length to indicate there was an error doing "lgetxattr" for this file, or is a C string which is a decimal number (the number of following attributes for this file, which could be "0"). Then after the first xattr struct are the zero or more attributes for the first named file. This repeats for the second and subsequent files.

This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also "lstatlist" for a similarly efficient call for getting standard stats.

This command depends on the feature linuxxattrs. See also "feature-available".

## max-disks

 max-disks

Return the maximum number of disks that may be added to a handle (eg. by "add-drive-opts" and similar calls).

This function was added in libguestfs 1.19.7. In previous versions of libguestfs the limit was 25.

See "MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DISKS" in guestfs(3) for additional information on this topic.

## md-create

 md-create name 'devices ...' [missingbitmap:N] [nrdevices:N] [spare:N] [chunk:N] [level:..]

Create a Linux md (RAID) device named name on the devices in the list devices.

The optional parameters are:

missingbitmap

A bitmap of missing devices. If a bit is set it means that a missing device is added to the array. The least significant bit corresponds to the first device in the array.

As examples:

If devices = ["/dev/sda"] and missingbitmap = 0x1 then the resulting array would be [<missing>, "/dev/sda"].

If devices = ["/dev/sda"] and missingbitmap = 0x2 then the resulting array would be ["/dev/sda", <missing>].

This defaults to 0 (no missing devices).

The length of devices + the number of bits set in missingbitmap must equal nrdevices + spare.

nrdevices

The number of active RAID devices.

If not set, this defaults to the length of devices plus the number of bits set in missingbitmap.

spare

The number of spare devices.

If not set, this defaults to 0.

chunk

The chunk size in bytes.

level

The RAID level, which can be one of: linear, raid0, 0, stripe, raid1, 1, mirror, raid4, 4, raid5, 5, raid6, 6, raid10, 10. Some of these are synonymous, and more levels may be added in future.

If not set, this defaults to raid1.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature mdadm. See also "feature-available".

## md-detail

 md-detail md

This command exposes the output of mdadm -DY <md>. The following fields are usually present in the returned hash. Other fields may also be present.

level

The raid level of the MD device.

devices

The number of underlying devices in the MD device.

metadata

uuid

The UUID of the MD device.

name

The name of the MD device.

This command depends on the feature mdadm. See also "feature-available".

## md-stat

 md-stat md

This call returns a list of the underlying devices which make up the single software RAID array device md.

To get a list of software RAID devices, call "list-md-devices".

Each structure returned corresponds to one device along with additional status information:

mdstat_device

The name of the underlying device.

mdstat_index

The index of this device within the array.

mdstat_flags

Flags associated with this device. This is a string containing (in no specific order) zero or more of the following flags:

W

write-mostly

F

device is faulty

S

device is a RAID spare

R

replacement

This command depends on the feature mdadm. See also "feature-available".

## md-stop

 md-stop md

This command deactivates the MD array named md. The device is stopped, but it is not destroyed or zeroed.

This command depends on the feature mdadm. See also "feature-available".

## mkdir

 mkdir path

Create a directory named path.

## mkdir-mode

 mkdir-mode path mode

This command creates a directory, setting the initial permissions of the directory to mode.

For common Linux filesystems, the actual mode which is set will be mode & ~umask & 01777. Non-native-Linux filesystems may interpret the mode in other ways.

## mkdir-p

 mkdir-p path

Create a directory named path, creating any parent directories as necessary. This is like the mkdir -p shell command.

## mkdtemp

 mkdtemp tmpl

This command creates a temporary directory. The tmpl parameter should be a full pathname for the temporary directory name with the final six characters being "XXXXXX".

For example: "/tmp/myprogXXXXXX" or "/Temp/myprogXXXXXX", the second one being suitable for Windows filesystems.

The name of the temporary directory that was created is returned.

The temporary directory is created with mode 0700 and is owned by root.

The caller is responsible for deleting the temporary directory and its contents after use.

## mke2fs

 mke2fs device [blockscount:N] [blocksize:N] [fragsize:N] [blockspergroup:N] [numberofgroups:N] [bytesperinode:N] [inodesize:N] [journalsize:N] [numberofinodes:N] [stridesize:N] [stripewidth:N] [maxonlineresize:N] [reservedblockspercentage:N] [mmpupdateinterval:N] [journaldevice:..] [label:..] [lastmounteddir:..] [creatoros:..] [fstype:..] [usagetype:..] [uuid:..] [forcecreate:true|false] [writesbandgrouponly:true|false] [lazyitableinit:true|false] [lazyjournalinit:true|false] [testfs:true|false] [discard:true|false] [quotatype:true|false] [extent:true|false] [filetype:true|false] [flexbg:true|false] [hasjournal:true|false] [journaldev:true|false] [largefile:true|false] [quota:true|false] [resizeinode:true|false] [sparsesuper:true|false] [uninitbg:true|false]

mke2fs is used to create an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem on device.

The optional blockscount is the size of the filesystem in blocks. If omitted it defaults to the size of device. Note if the filesystem is too small to contain a journal, mke2fs will silently create an ext2 filesystem instead.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## mke2fs-J

 mke2fs-J fstype blocksize device journal

This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on device with an external journal on journal. It is equivalent to the command:

 mke2fs -t fstype -b blocksize -J device=<journal> <device>

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## mke2fs-JL

 mke2fs-JL fstype blocksize device label

This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on device with an external journal on the journal labeled label.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## mke2fs-JU

 mke2fs-JU fstype blocksize device uuid

This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on device with an external journal on the journal with UUID uuid.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature linuxfsuuid. See also "feature-available".

## mke2journal

 mke2journal blocksize device

This creates an ext2 external journal on device. It is equivalent to the command:

 mke2fs -O journal_dev -b blocksize device

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## mke2journal-L

 mke2journal-L blocksize label device

This creates an ext2 external journal on device with label label.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## mke2journal-U

 mke2journal-U blocksize uuid device

This creates an ext2 external journal on device with UUID uuid.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature linuxfsuuid. See also "feature-available".

## mkfifo

 mkfifo mode path

This call creates a FIFO (named pipe) called path with mode mode. It is just a convenient wrapper around "mknod".

Unlike with "mknod", mode must contain only permissions bits.

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

This command depends on the feature mknod. See also "feature-available".

## mkfs-opts

 mkfs fstype device [blocksize:N] [features:..] [inode:N] [sectorsize:N] [label:..]

This function creates a filesystem on device. The filesystem type is fstype, for example ext3.

The optional arguments are:

blocksize

The filesystem block size. Supported block sizes depend on the filesystem type, but typically they are 1024, 2048 or 4096 for Linux ext2/3 filesystems.

For VFAT and NTFS the blocksize parameter is treated as the requested cluster size.

For UFS block sizes, please see mkfs.ufs(8).

features

This passes the -O parameter to the external mkfs program.

For certain filesystem types, this allows extra filesystem features to be selected. See mke2fs(8) and mkfs.ufs(8) for more details.

You cannot use this optional parameter with the gfs or gfs2 filesystem type.

inode

This passes the -I parameter to the external mke2fs(8) program which sets the inode size (only for ext2/3/4 filesystems at present).

sectorsize

This passes the -S parameter to external mkfs.ufs(8) program, which sets sector size for ufs filesystem.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## mkfs-b

 mkfs-b fstype blocksize device

This call is similar to "mkfs", but it allows you to control the block size of the resulting filesystem. Supported block sizes depend on the filesystem type, but typically they are 1024, 2048 or 4096 only.

For VFAT and NTFS the blocksize parameter is treated as the requested cluster size.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkfs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## mkfs-btrfs

 mkfs-btrfs 'devices ...' [allocstart:N] [bytecount:N] [datatype:..] [leafsize:N] [label:..] [metadata:..] [nodesize:N] [sectorsize:N]

Create a btrfs filesystem, allowing all configurables to be set. For more information on the optional arguments, see mkfs.btrfs(8).

Since btrfs filesystems can span multiple devices, this takes a non-empty list of devices.

To create general filesystems, use "mkfs".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature btrfs. See also "feature-available".

## mklost-and-found

 mklost-and-found mountpoint

Make the lost+found directory, normally in the root directory of an ext2/3/4 filesystem. mountpoint is the directory under which we try to create the lost+found directory.

## mkmountpoint

 mkmountpoint exemptpath

"mkmountpoint" and "rmmountpoint" are specialized calls that can be used to create extra mountpoints before mounting the first filesystem.

These calls are only necessary in some very limited circumstances, mainly the case where you want to mount a mix of unrelated and/or read-only filesystems together.

For example, live CDs often contain a "Russian doll" nest of filesystems, an ISO outer layer, with a squashfs image inside, with an ext2/3 image inside that. You can unpack this as follows in guestfish:

 add-ro Fedora-11-i686-Live.iso
run
mkmountpoint /cd
mkmountpoint /sqsh
mkmountpoint /ext3fs
mount /dev/sda /cd
mount-loop /cd/LiveOS/squashfs.img /sqsh
mount-loop /sqsh/LiveOS/ext3fs.img /ext3fs

The inner filesystem is now unpacked under the /ext3fs mountpoint.

"mkmountpoint" is not compatible with "umount-all". You may get unexpected errors if you try to mix these calls. It is safest to manually unmount filesystems and remove mountpoints after use.

"umount-all" unmounts filesystems by sorting the paths longest first, so for this to work for manual mountpoints, you must ensure that the innermost mountpoints have the longest pathnames, as in the example code above.

For more details see https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=599503

Autosync [see "set-autosync", this is set by default on handles] can cause "umount-all" to be called when the handle is closed which can also trigger these issues.

## mknod

 mknod mode devmajor devminor path

This call creates block or character special devices, or named pipes (FIFOs).

The mode parameter should be the mode, using the standard constants. devmajor and devminor are the device major and minor numbers, only used when creating block and character special devices.

Note that, just like mknod(2), the mode must be bitwise OR'd with S_IFBLK, S_IFCHR, S_IFIFO or S_IFSOCK (otherwise this call just creates a regular file). These constants are available in the standard Linux header files, or you can use "mknod-b", "mknod-c" or "mkfifo" which are wrappers around this command which bitwise OR in the appropriate constant for you.

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

This command depends on the feature mknod. See also "feature-available".

## mknod-b

 mknod-b mode devmajor devminor path

This call creates a block device node called path with mode mode and device major/minor devmajor and devminor. It is just a convenient wrapper around "mknod".

Unlike with "mknod", mode must contain only permissions bits.

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

This command depends on the feature mknod. See also "feature-available".

## mknod-c

 mknod-c mode devmajor devminor path

This call creates a char device node called path with mode mode and device major/minor devmajor and devminor. It is just a convenient wrapper around "mknod".

Unlike with "mknod", mode must contain only permissions bits.

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

This command depends on the feature mknod. See also "feature-available".

## mksquashfs

 mksquashfs path (filename|-) [compress:..] [excludes:..]

Create a squashfs filesystem for the specified path.

The optional compress flag controls compression. If not given, then the output compressed using gzip. Otherwise one of the following strings may be given to select the compression type of the squashfs: gzip, lzma, lzo, lz4, xz.

The other optional arguments are:

excludes

A list of wildcards. Files are excluded if they match any of the wildcards.

Please note that this API may fail when used to compress directories with large files, such as the resulting squashfs will be over 3GB big.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature squashfs. See also "feature-available".

## mkswap-opts

 mkswap device [label:..] [uuid:..]

Create a Linux swap partition on device.

The option arguments label and uuid allow you to set the label and/or UUID of the new swap partition.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## mkswap-L

 mkswap-L label device

Create a swap partition on device with label label.

Note that you cannot attach a swap label to a block device (eg. /dev/sda), just to a partition. This appears to be a limitation of the kernel or swap tools.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkswap" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## mkswap-U

 mkswap-U uuid device

Create a swap partition on device with UUID uuid.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkswap" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature linuxfsuuid. See also "feature-available".

## mkswap-file

 mkswap-file path

Create a swap file.

This command just writes a swap file signature to an existing file. To create the file itself, use something like "fallocate".

## mktemp

 mktemp tmpl [suffix:..]

This command creates a temporary file. The tmpl parameter should be a full pathname for the temporary directory name with the final six characters being "XXXXXX".

For example: "/tmp/myprogXXXXXX" or "/Temp/myprogXXXXXX", the second one being suitable for Windows filesystems.

The name of the temporary file that was created is returned.

The temporary file is created with mode 0600 and is owned by root.

The caller is responsible for deleting the temporary file after use.

If the optional suffix parameter is given, then the suffix (eg. .txt) is appended to the temporary name.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## modprobe

 modprobe modulename

This loads a kernel module in the appliance.

This command depends on the feature linuxmodules. See also "feature-available".

## mount

 mount mountable mountpoint

Mount a guest disk at a position in the filesystem. Block devices are named /dev/sda, /dev/sdb and so on, as they were added to the guest. If those block devices contain partitions, they will have the usual names (eg. /dev/sda1). Also LVM /dev/VG/LV-style names can be used, or ‘mountable’ strings returned by "list-filesystems" or "inspect-get-mountpoints".

The rules are the same as for mount(2): A filesystem must first be mounted on / before others can be mounted. Other filesystems can only be mounted on directories which already exist.

The mounted filesystem is writable, if we have sufficient permissions on the underlying device.

Before libguestfs 1.13.16, this call implicitly added the options sync and noatime. The sync option greatly slowed writes and caused many problems for users. If your program might need to work with older versions of libguestfs, use "mount-options" instead (using an empty string for the first parameter if you don't want any options).

## mount-9p

 mount-9p mounttag mountpoint [options:..]

Mount the virtio-9p filesystem with the tag mounttag on the directory mountpoint.

If required, trans=virtio will be automatically added to the options. Any other options required can be passed in the optional options parameter.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## mount-local

 mount-local localmountpoint [readonly:true|false] [options:..] [cachetimeout:N] [debugcalls:true|false]

This call exports the libguestfs-accessible filesystem to a local mountpoint (directory) called localmountpoint. Ordinary reads and writes to files and directories under localmountpoint are redirected through libguestfs.

If the optional readonly flag is set to true, then writes to the filesystem return error EROFS.

options is a comma-separated list of mount options. See guestmount(1) for some useful options.

cachetimeout sets the timeout (in seconds) for cached directory entries. The default is 60 seconds. See guestmount(1) for further information.

If debugcalls is set to true, then additional debugging information is generated for every FUSE call.

When "mount-local" returns, the filesystem is ready, but is not processing requests (access to it will block). You have to call "mount-local-run" to run the main loop.

See "MOUNT LOCAL" in guestfs(3) for full documentation.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## mount-local-run

 mount-local-run

Run the main loop which translates kernel calls to libguestfs calls.

This should only be called after "mount-local" returns successfully. The call will not return until the filesystem is unmounted.

Note you must not make concurrent libguestfs calls on the same handle from another thread.

You may call this from a different thread than the one which called "mount-local", subject to the usual rules for threads and libguestfs (see "MULTIPLE HANDLES AND MULTIPLE THREADS" in guestfs(3)).

See "MOUNT LOCAL" in guestfs(3) for full documentation.

## mount-loop

 mount-loop file mountpoint

This command lets you mount file (a filesystem image in a file) on a mount point. It is entirely equivalent to the command mount -o loop file mountpoint.

## mount-options

 mount-options options mountable mountpoint

This is the same as the "mount" command, but it allows you to set the mount options as for the mount(8) -o flag.

If the options parameter is an empty string, then no options are passed (all options default to whatever the filesystem uses).

## mount-ro

 mount-ro mountable mountpoint

This is the same as the "mount" command, but it mounts the filesystem with the read-only (-o ro) flag.

## mount-vfs

 mount-vfs options vfstype mountable mountpoint

This is the same as the "mount" command, but it allows you to set both the mount options and the vfstype as for the mount(8) -o and -t flags.

## mountable-device

 mountable-device mountable

Returns the device name of a mountable. In quite a lot of cases, the mountable is the device name.

However this doesn't apply for btrfs subvolumes, where the mountable is a combination of both the device name and the subvolume path (see also "mountable-subvolume" to extract the subvolume path of the mountable if any).

## mountable-subvolume

 mountable-subvolume mountable

Returns the subvolume path of a mountable. Btrfs subvolumes mountables are a combination of both the device name and the subvolume path (see also "mountable-device" to extract the device of the mountable).

If the mountable does not represent a btrfs subvolume, then this function fails and the errno is set to EINVAL.

## mountpoints

 mountpoints

This call is similar to "mounts". That call returns a list of devices. This one returns a hash table (map) of device name to directory where the device is mounted.

## mounts

 mounts

This returns the list of currently mounted filesystems. It returns the list of devices (eg. /dev/sda1, /dev/VG/LV).

Some internal mounts are not shown.

## mv

 mv src dest

This moves a file from src to dest where dest is either a destination filename or destination directory.

## nr-devices

 nr-devices

This returns the number of whole block devices that were added. This is the same as the number of devices that would be returned if you called "list-devices".

To find out the maximum number of devices that could be added, call "max-disks".

## ntfs-3g-probe

 ntfs-3g-probe true|false device

This command runs the ntfs-3g.probe(8) command which probes an NTFS device for mountability. (Not all NTFS volumes can be mounted read-write, and some cannot be mounted at all).

rw is a boolean flag. Set it to true if you want to test if the volume can be mounted read-write. Set it to false if you want to test if the volume can be mounted read-only.

The return value is an integer which 0 if the operation would succeed, or some non-zero value documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page.

This command depends on the feature ntfs3g. See also "feature-available".

## ntfscat-i

 ntfscat-i device inode (filename|-)

Download a file given its inode from a NTFS filesystem and save it as filename on the local machine.

This allows to download some otherwise inaccessible files such as the ones within the $Extend folder. The filesystem from which to extract the file must be unmounted, otherwise the call will fail. Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. ## ntfsclone-in  ntfsclone-in (backupfile|-) device Restore the backupfile (from a previous call to "ntfsclone-out") to device, overwriting any existing contents of this device. Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command depends on the feature ntfs3g. See also "feature-available". ## ntfsclone-out  ntfsclone-out device (backupfile|-) [metadataonly:true|false] [rescue:true|false] [ignorefscheck:true|false] [preservetimestamps:true|false] [force:true|false] Stream the NTFS filesystem device to the local file backupfile. The format used for the backup file is a special format used by the ntfsclone(8) tool. If the optional metadataonly flag is true, then only the metadata is saved, losing all the user data (this is useful for diagnosing some filesystem problems). The optional rescue, ignorefscheck, preservetimestamps and force flags have precise meanings detailed in the ntfsclone(8) man page. Use "ntfsclone-in" to restore the file back to a libguestfs device. Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature ntfs3g. See also "feature-available". ## ntfsfix  ntfsfix device [clearbadsectors:true|false] This command repairs some fundamental NTFS inconsistencies, resets the NTFS journal file, and schedules an NTFS consistency check for the first boot into Windows. This is not an equivalent of Windows chkdsk. It does not scan the filesystem for inconsistencies. The optional clearbadsectors flag clears the list of bad sectors. This is useful after cloning a disk with bad sectors to a new disk. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature ntfs3g. See also "feature-available". ## ntfsresize ## ntfsresize-opts  ntfsresize device [size:N] [force:true|false] This command resizes an NTFS filesystem, expanding or shrinking it to the size of the underlying device. The optional parameters are: size The new size (in bytes) of the filesystem. If omitted, the filesystem is resized to fit the container (eg. partition). force If this option is true, then force the resize of the filesystem even if the filesystem is marked as requiring a consistency check. After the resize operation, the filesystem is always marked as requiring a consistency check (for safety). You have to boot into Windows to perform this check and clear this condition. If you don't set the force option then it is not possible to call "ntfsresize" multiple times on a single filesystem without booting into Windows between each resize. See also ntfsresize(8). This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature ntfsprogs. See also "feature-available". ## ntfsresize-size  ntfsresize-size device size This command is the same as "ntfsresize" except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "ntfsresize" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. This command depends on the feature ntfsprogs. See also "feature-available". ## parse-environment  parse-environment Parse the program’s environment and set flags in the handle accordingly. For example if LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 then the ‘verbose’ flag is set in the handle. Most programs do not need to call this. It is done implicitly when you call "create". See "ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES" in guestfs(3) for a list of environment variables that can affect libguestfs handles. See also "guestfs_create_flags" in guestfs(3), and "parse-environment-list". ## parse-environment-list  parse-environment-list 'environment ...' Parse the list of strings in the argument environment and set flags in the handle accordingly. For example if LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 is a string in the list, then the ‘verbose’ flag is set in the handle. This is the same as "parse-environment" except that it parses an explicit list of strings instead of the program's environment. ## part-add  part-add device prlogex startsect endsect This command adds a partition to device. If there is no partition table on the device, call "part-init" first. The prlogex parameter is the type of partition. Normally you should pass p or primary here, but MBR partition tables also support l (or logical) and e (or extended) partition types. startsect and endsect are the start and end of the partition in sectors. endsect may be negative, which means it counts backwards from the end of the disk (-1 is the last sector). Creating a partition which covers the whole disk is not so easy. Use "part-disk" to do that. ## part-del  part-del device partnum This command deletes the partition numbered partnum on device. Note that in the case of MBR partitioning, deleting an extended partition also deletes any logical partitions it contains. ## part-disk  part-disk device parttype This command is simply a combination of "part-init" followed by "part-add" to create a single primary partition covering the whole disk. parttype is the partition table type, usually mbr or gpt, but other possible values are described in "part-init". ## part-expand-gpt  part-expand-gpt device Move backup GPT data structures to the end of the disk. This is useful in case of in-place image expand since disk space after backup GPT header is not usable. This is equivalent to sgdisk -e. See also sgdisk(8). This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-get-bootable  part-get-bootable device partnum This command returns true if the partition partnum on device has the bootable flag set. See also "part-set-bootable". ## part-get-disk-guid  part-get-disk-guid device Return the disk identifier (GUID) of a GPT-partitioned device. Behaviour is undefined for other partition types. This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-get-gpt-attributes  part-get-gpt-attributes device partnum Return the attribute flags of numbered GPT partition partnum. An error is returned for MBR partitions. This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-get-gpt-guid  part-get-gpt-guid device partnum Return the GUID of numbered GPT partition partnum. This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-get-gpt-type  part-get-gpt-type device partnum Return the type GUID of numbered GPT partition partnum. For MBR partitions, return an appropriate GUID corresponding to the MBR type. Behaviour is undefined for other partition types. This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-get-mbr-id  part-get-mbr-id device partnum Returns the MBR type byte (also known as the ID byte) from the numbered partition partnum. Note that only MBR (old DOS-style) partitions have type bytes. You will get undefined results for other partition table types (see "part-get-parttype"). ## part-get-mbr-part-type  part-get-mbr-part-type device partnum This returns the partition type of an MBR partition numbered partnum on device device. It returns primary, logical, or extended. ## part-get-name  part-get-name device partnum This gets the partition name on partition numbered partnum on device device. Note that partitions are numbered from 1. The partition name can only be read on certain types of partition table. This works on gpt but not on mbr partitions. ## part-get-parttype  part-get-parttype device This command examines the partition table on device and returns the partition table type (format) being used. Common return values include: msdos (a DOS/Windows style MBR partition table), gpt (a GPT/EFI-style partition table). Other values are possible, although unusual. See "part-init" for a full list. ## part-init  part-init device parttype This creates an empty partition table on device of one of the partition types listed below. Usually parttype should be either msdos or gpt (for large disks). Initially there are no partitions. Following this, you should call "part-add" for each partition required. Possible values for parttype are: efi gpt Intel EFI / GPT partition table. This is recommended for >= 2 TB partitions that will be accessed from Linux and Intel-based Mac OS X. It also has limited backwards compatibility with the mbr format. mbr msdos The standard PC "Master Boot Record" (MBR) format used by MS-DOS and Windows. This partition type will only work for device sizes up to 2 TB. For large disks we recommend using gpt. Other partition table types that may work but are not supported include: aix AIX disk labels. amiga rdb Amiga "Rigid Disk Block" format. bsd BSD disk labels. dasd DASD, used on IBM mainframes. dvh MIPS/SGI volumes. mac Old Mac partition format. Modern Macs use gpt. pc98 NEC PC-98 format, common in Japan apparently. sun Sun disk labels. ## part-list  part-list device This command parses the partition table on device and returns the list of partitions found. The fields in the returned structure are: part_num Partition number, counting from 1. part_start Start of the partition in bytes. To get sectors you have to divide by the device’s sector size, see "blockdev-getss". part_end End of the partition in bytes. part_size Size of the partition in bytes. ## part-resize  part-resize device partnum endsect This command resizes the partition numbered partnum on device by moving the end position. Note that this does not modify any filesystem present in the partition. If you wish to do this, you will need to use filesystem resizing commands like "resize2fs". When growing a partition you will want to grow the filesystem afterwards, but when shrinking, you need to shrink the filesystem before the partition. ## part-set-bootable  part-set-bootable device partnum true|false This sets the bootable flag on partition numbered partnum on device device. Note that partitions are numbered from 1. The bootable flag is used by some operating systems (notably Windows) to determine which partition to boot from. It is by no means universally recognized. ## part-set-disk-guid  part-set-disk-guid device guid Set the disk identifier (GUID) of a GPT-partitioned device to guid. Return an error if the partition table of device isn't GPT, or if guid is not a valid GUID. This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-set-disk-guid-random  part-set-disk-guid-random device Set the disk identifier (GUID) of a GPT-partitioned device to a randomly generated value. Return an error if the partition table of device isn't GPT. This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-set-gpt-attributes  part-set-gpt-attributes device partnum attributes Set the attribute flags of numbered GPT partition partnum to attributes. Return an error if the partition table of device isn't GPT. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table#Partition_entries for a useful list of partition attributes. This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-set-gpt-guid  part-set-gpt-guid device partnum guid Set the GUID of numbered GPT partition partnum to guid. Return an error if the partition table of device isn't GPT, or if guid is not a valid GUID. This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-set-gpt-type  part-set-gpt-type device partnum guid Set the type GUID of numbered GPT partition partnum to guid. Return an error if the partition table of device isn't GPT, or if guid is not a valid GUID. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table#Partition_type_GUIDs for a useful list of type GUIDs. This command depends on the feature gdisk. See also "feature-available". ## part-set-mbr-id  part-set-mbr-id device partnum idbyte Sets the MBR type byte (also known as the ID byte) of the numbered partition partnum to idbyte. Note that the type bytes quoted in most documentation are in fact hexadecimal numbers, but usually documented without any leading "0x" which might be confusing. Note that only MBR (old DOS-style) partitions have type bytes. You will get undefined results for other partition table types (see "part-get-parttype"). ## part-set-name  part-set-name device partnum name This sets the partition name on partition numbered partnum on device device. Note that partitions are numbered from 1. The partition name can only be set on certain types of partition table. This works on gpt but not on mbr partitions. ## part-to-dev  part-to-dev partition This function takes a partition name (eg. "/dev/sdb1") and removes the partition number, returning the device name (eg. "/dev/sdb"). The named partition must exist, for example as a string returned from "list-partitions". See also "part-to-partnum", "device-index". ## part-to-partnum  part-to-partnum partition This function takes a partition name (eg. "/dev/sdb1") and returns the partition number (eg. 1). The named partition must exist, for example as a string returned from "list-partitions". See also "part-to-dev". ## ping-daemon  ping-daemon This is a test probe into the guestfs daemon running inside the libguestfs appliance. Calling this function checks that the daemon responds to the ping message, without affecting the daemon or attached block device(s) in any other way. ## pread  pread path count offset This command lets you read part of a file. It reads count bytes of the file, starting at offset, from file path. This may read fewer bytes than requested. For further details see the pread(2) system call. See also "pwrite", "pread-device". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). ## pread-device  pread-device device count offset This command lets you read part of a block device. It reads count bytes of device, starting at offset. This may read fewer bytes than requested. For further details see the pread(2) system call. See also "pread". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). ## pvchange-uuid  pvchange-uuid device Generate a new random UUID for the physical volume device. This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available". ## pvchange-uuid-all  pvchange-uuid-all Generate new random UUIDs for all physical volumes. This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available". ## pvcreate  pvcreate device This creates an LVM physical volume on the named device, where device should usually be a partition name such as /dev/sda1. This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available". ## pvremove  pvremove device This wipes a physical volume device so that LVM will no longer recognise it. The implementation uses the pvremove(8) command which refuses to wipe physical volumes that contain any volume groups, so you have to remove those first. This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available". ## pvresize  pvresize device This resizes (expands or shrinks) an existing LVM physical volume to match the new size of the underlying device. This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available". ## pvresize-size  pvresize-size device size This command is the same as "pvresize" except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly. This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available". ## pvs  pvs List all the physical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the pvs(8) command. This returns a list of just the device names that contain PVs (eg. /dev/sda2). See also "pvs-full". This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available". ## pvs-full  pvs-full List all the physical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the pvs(8) command. The "full" version includes all fields. This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available". ## pvuuid  pvuuid device This command returns the UUID of the LVM PV device. ## pwrite  pwrite path content offset This command writes to part of a file. It writes the data buffer content to the file path starting at offset offset. This command implements the pwrite(2) system call, and like that system call it may not write the full data requested. The return value is the number of bytes that were actually written to the file. This could even be 0, although short writes are unlikely for regular files in ordinary circumstances. See also "pread", "pwrite-device". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). ## pwrite-device  pwrite-device device content offset This command writes to part of a device. It writes the data buffer content to device starting at offset offset. This command implements the pwrite(2) system call, and like that system call it may not write the full data requested (although short writes to disk devices and partitions are probably impossible with standard Linux kernels). See also "pwrite". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3). ## read-file  read-file path This calls returns the contents of the file path as a buffer. Unlike "cat", this function can correctly handle files that contain embedded ASCII NUL characters. ## read-lines  read-lines path Return the contents of the file named path. The file contents are returned as a list of lines. Trailing LF and CRLF character sequences are not returned. Note that this function cannot correctly handle binary files (specifically, files containing \0 character which is treated as end of string). For those you need to use the "read-file" function and split the buffer into lines yourself. ## readdir  readdir dir This returns the list of directory entries in directory dir. All entries in the directory are returned, including . and ... The entries are not sorted, but returned in the same order as the underlying filesystem. Also this call returns basic file type information about each file. The ftyp field will contain one of the following characters: 'b' Block special 'c' Char special 'd' Directory 'f' FIFO (named pipe) 'l' Symbolic link 'r' Regular file 's' Socket 'u' Unknown file type '?' The readdir(3) call returned a d_type field with an unexpected value This function is primarily intended for use by programs. To get a simple list of names, use "ls". To get a printable directory for human consumption, use "ll". Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).  readlink path This command reads the target of a symbolic link.  readlinklist path 'names ...' This call allows you to do a readlink operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory path. names is the list of files from this directory. On return you get a list of strings, with a one-to-one correspondence to the names list. Each string is the value of the symbolic link. If the readlink(2) operation fails on any name, then the corresponding result string is the empty string "". However the whole operation is completed even if there were readlink(2) errors, and so you can call this function with names where you don't know if they are symbolic links already (albeit slightly less efficient). This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. ## realpath  realpath path Return the canonicalized absolute pathname of path. The returned path has no ., .. or symbolic link path elements. ## remount  remount mountpoint [rw:true|false] This call allows you to change the rw (readonly/read-write) flag on an already mounted filesystem at mountpoint, converting a readonly filesystem to be read-write, or vice-versa. Note that at the moment you must supply the "optional" rw parameter. In future we may allow other flags to be adjusted. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". ## remove-drive  remove-drive label This function is conceptually the opposite of "add-drive-opts". It removes the drive that was previously added with label label. Note that in order to remove drives, you have to add them with labels (see the optional label argument to "add-drive-opts"). If you didn't use a label, then they cannot be removed. You can call this function before or after launching the handle. If called after launch, if the backend supports it, we try to hot unplug the drive: see "HOTPLUGGING" in guestfs(3). The disk must not be in use (eg. mounted) when you do this. We try to detect if the disk is in use and stop you from doing this. ## removexattr  removexattr xattr path This call removes the extended attribute named xattr of the file path. See also: "lremovexattr", attr(5). This command depends on the feature linuxxattrs. See also "feature-available". ## rename  rename oldpath newpath Rename a file to a new place on the same filesystem. This is the same as the Linux rename(2) system call. In most cases you are better to use "mv" instead. ## resize2fs  resize2fs device This resizes an ext2, ext3 or ext4 filesystem to match the size of the underlying device. See also "RESIZE2FS ERRORS" in guestfs(3). ## resize2fs-M  resize2fs-M device This command is the same as "resize2fs", but the filesystem is resized to its minimum size. This works like the -M option to the resize2fs(8) command. To get the resulting size of the filesystem you should call "tune2fs-l" and read the Block size and Block count values. These two numbers, multiplied together, give the resulting size of the minimal filesystem in bytes. See also "RESIZE2FS ERRORS" in guestfs(3). ## resize2fs-size  resize2fs-size device size This command is the same as "resize2fs" except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly. See also "RESIZE2FS ERRORS" in guestfs(3). ## rm  rm path Remove the single file path. ## rm-f  rm-f path Remove the file path. If the file doesn't exist, that error is ignored. (Other errors, eg. I/O errors or bad paths, are not ignored) This call cannot remove directories. Use "rmdir" to remove an empty directory, or "rm-rf" to remove directories recursively. ## rm-rf  rm-rf path Remove the file or directory path, recursively removing the contents if its a directory. This is like the rm -rf shell command. ## rmdir  rmdir path Remove the single directory path. ## rmmountpoint  rmmountpoint exemptpath This call removes a mountpoint that was previously created with "mkmountpoint". See "mkmountpoint" for full details. ## rsync  rsync src dest [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false] This call may be used to copy or synchronize two directories under the same libguestfs handle. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily. src and dest are the source and destination directories. Files are copied from src to dest. The optional arguments are: archive Turns on archive mode. This is the same as passing the --archive flag to rsync. deletedest Delete files at the destination that do not exist at the source. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature rsync. See also "feature-available". ## rsync-in  rsync-in remote dest [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false] This call may be used to copy or synchronize the filesystem on the host or on a remote computer with the filesystem within libguestfs. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily. This call only works if the network is enabled. See "set-network" or the --network option to various tools like guestfish(1). Files are copied from the remote server and directory specified by remote to the destination directory dest. The format of the remote server string is defined by rsync(1). Note that there is no way to supply a password or passphrase so the target must be set up not to require one. The optional arguments are the same as those of "rsync". This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature rsync. See also "feature-available". ## rsync-out  rsync-out src remote [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false] This call may be used to copy or synchronize the filesystem within libguestfs with a filesystem on the host or on a remote computer. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily. This call only works if the network is enabled. See "set-network" or the --network option to various tools like guestfish(1). Files are copied from the source directory src to the remote server and directory specified by remote. The format of the remote server string is defined by rsync(1). Note that there is no way to supply a password or passphrase so the target must be set up not to require one. The optional arguments are the same as those of "rsync". Globbing does not happen on the src parameter. In programs which use the API directly you have to expand wildcards yourself (see "glob-expand"). In guestfish you can use the glob command (see "glob"), for example:  ><fs> glob rsync-out /* rsync://remote/ This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature rsync. See also "feature-available". ## scrub-device  scrub-device device This command writes patterns over device to make data retrieval more difficult. It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details. This command depends on the feature scrub. See also "feature-available". ## scrub-file  scrub-file file This command writes patterns over a file to make data retrieval more difficult. The file is removed after scrubbing. It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details. This command depends on the feature scrub. See also "feature-available". ## scrub-freespace  scrub-freespace dir This command creates the directory dir and then fills it with files until the filesystem is full, and scrubs the files as for "scrub-file", and deletes them. The intention is to scrub any free space on the partition containing dir. It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details. This command depends on the feature scrub. See also "feature-available". ## selinux-relabel  selinux-relabel specfile path [force:true|false] SELinux relabel parts of the filesystem. The specfile parameter controls the policy spec file used. You have to parse /etc/selinux/config to find the correct SELinux policy and then pass the spec file, usually: /etc/selinux/ + selinuxtype + /contexts/files/file_contexts. The required path parameter is the top level directory where relabelling starts. Normally you should pass path as / to relabel the whole guest filesystem. The optional force boolean controls whether the context is reset for customizable files, and also whether the user, role and range parts of the file context is changed. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". This command depends on the feature selinuxrelabel. See also "feature-available". ## set-append ## append  set-append append This function is used to add additional options to the libguestfs appliance kernel command line. The default is NULL unless overridden by setting LIBGUESTFS_APPEND environment variable. Setting append to NULL means no additional options are passed (libguestfs always adds a few of its own). ## set-attach-method ## attach-method  set-attach-method backend Set the method that libguestfs uses to connect to the backend guestfsd daemon. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-backend" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## set-autosync ## autosync  set-autosync true|false If autosync is true, this enables autosync. Libguestfs will make a best effort attempt to make filesystems consistent and synchronized when the handle is closed (also if the program exits without closing handles). This is enabled by default (since libguestfs 1.5.24, previously it was disabled by default). ## set-backend ## backend  set-backend backend Set the method that libguestfs uses to connect to the backend guestfsd daemon. This handle property was previously called the "attach method". ## set-backend-setting  set-backend-setting name val Append "name=value" to the backend settings string list. However if a string already exists matching "name" or beginning with "name=", then that setting is replaced. ## set-backend-settings  set-backend-settings 'settings ...' Set a list of zero or more settings which are passed through to the current backend. Each setting is a string which is interpreted in a backend-specific way, or ignored if not understood by the backend. The default value is an empty list, unless the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND_SETTINGS was set when the handle was created. This environment variable contains a colon-separated list of settings. This call replaces all backend settings. If you want to replace a single backend setting, see "set-backend-setting". If you want to clear a single backend setting, see "clear-backend-setting". ## set-cachedir ## cachedir  set-cachedir cachedir Set the directory used by the handle to store the appliance cache, when using a supermin appliance. The appliance is cached and shared between all handles which have the same effective user ID. The environment variables LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR and TMPDIR control the default value: If LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR is set, then that is the default. Else if TMPDIR is set, then that is the default. Else /var/tmp is the default. ## set-direct ## direct  set-direct true|false If the direct appliance mode flag is enabled, then stdin and stdout are passed directly through to the appliance once it is launched. One consequence of this is that log messages aren't caught by the library and handled by "set-log-message-callback", but go straight to stdout. You probably don't want to use this unless you know what you are doing. The default is disabled. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "internal-get-console-socket" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## set-e2attrs  set-e2attrs file attrs [clear:true|false] This sets or clears the file attributes attrs associated with the inode file. attrs is a string of characters representing file attributes. See "get-e2attrs" for a list of possible attributes. Not all attributes can be changed. If optional boolean clear is not present or false, then the attrs listed are set in the inode. If clear is true, then the attrs listed are cleared in the inode. In both cases, other attributes not present in the attrs string are left unchanged. These attributes are only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error. This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS". ## set-e2generation  set-e2generation file generation This sets the ext2 file generation of a file. ## set-e2label  set-e2label device label This sets the ext2/3/4 filesystem label of the filesystem on device to label. Filesystem labels are limited to 16 characters. You can use either "tune2fs-l" or "get-e2label" to return the existing label on a filesystem. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-label" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## set-e2uuid  set-e2uuid device uuid This sets the ext2/3/4 filesystem UUID of the filesystem on device to uuid. The format of the UUID and alternatives such as clear, random and time are described in the tune2fs(8) manpage. You can use "vfs-uuid" to return the existing UUID of a filesystem. This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-uuid" call instead. Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions. ## set-hv ## hv  set-hv hv Set the hypervisor binary that we will use. The hypervisor depends on the backend, but is usually the location of the qemu/KVM hypervisor. For the uml backend, it is the location of the linux or vmlinux binary. The default is chosen when the library was compiled by the configure script. You can also override this by setting the LIBGUESTFS_HV environment variable. Note that you should call this function as early as possible after creating the handle. This is because some pre-launch operations depend on testing qemu features (by running qemu -help). If the qemu binary changes, we don't retest features, and so you might see inconsistent results. Using the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_HV is safest of all since that picks the qemu binary at the same time as the handle is created. ## set-identifier ## identifier  set-identifier identifier This is an informative string which the caller may optionally set in the handle. It is printed in various places, allowing the current handle to be identified in debugging output. One important place is when tracing is enabled. If the identifier string is not an empty string, then trace messages change from this:  libguestfs: trace: get_tmpdir libguestfs: trace: get_tmpdir = "/tmp" to this:  libguestfs: trace: ID: get_tmpdir libguestfs: trace: ID: get_tmpdir = "/tmp" where ID is the identifier string set by this call. The identifier must only contain alphanumeric ASCII characters, underscore and minus sign. The default is the empty string. See also "set-program", "set-trace", "get-identifier". ## set-label  set-label mountable label Set the filesystem label on mountable to label. Only some filesystem types support labels, and libguestfs supports setting labels on only a subset of these. ext2, ext3, ext4 Labels are limited to 16 bytes. NTFS Labels are limited to 128 unicode characters. XFS The label is limited to 12 bytes. The filesystem must not be mounted when trying to set the label. btrfs The label is limited to 255 bytes and some characters are not allowed. Setting the label on a btrfs subvolume will set the label on its parent filesystem. The filesystem must not be mounted when trying to set the label. fat The label is limited to 11 bytes. swap The label is limited to 16 bytes. If there is no support for changing the label for the type of the specified filesystem, set_label will fail and set errno as ENOTSUP. To read the label on a filesystem, call "vfs-label". ## set-libvirt-requested-credential  set-libvirt-requested-credential index cred After requesting the index'th credential from the user, call this function to pass the answer back to libvirt. See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. ## set-libvirt-supported-credentials  set-libvirt-supported-credentials 'creds ...' Call this function before setting an event handler for GUESTFS_EVENT_LIBVIRT_AUTH, to supply the list of credential types that the program knows how to process. The creds list must be a non-empty list of strings. Possible strings are: username authname language cnonce passphrase echoprompt noechoprompt realm external See libvirt documentation for the meaning of these credential types. See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code. ## set-memsize ## memsize  set-memsize memsize This sets the memory size in megabytes allocated to the hypervisor. This only has any effect if called before "launch". You can also change this by setting the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE before the handle is created. For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3). ## set-network ## network  set-network true|false If network is true, then the network is enabled in the libguestfs appliance. The default is false. This affects whether commands are able to access the network (see "RUNNING COMMANDS" in guestfs(3)). You must call this before calling "launch", otherwise it has no effect. ## set-path ## path  set-path searchpath Set the path that libguestfs searches for kernel and initrd.img. The default is $libdir/guestfs unless overridden by setting LIBGUESTFS_PATH environment variable.

Setting path to NULL restores the default path.

## pgroup

 set-pgroup true|false

If pgroup is true, child processes are placed into their own process group.

The practical upshot of this is that signals like SIGINT (from users pressing ^C) won't be received by the child process.

The default for this flag is false, because usually you want ^C to kill the subprocess. Guestfish sets this flag to true when used interactively, so that ^C can cancel long-running commands gracefully (see "user-cancel").

## program

 set-program program

Set the program name. This is an informative string which the main program may optionally set in the handle.

When the handle is created, the program name in the handle is set to the basename from argv[0]. The program name can never be NULL.

## qemu

 set-qemu hv

Set the hypervisor binary (usually qemu) that we will use.

The default is chosen when the library was compiled by the configure script.

You can also override this by setting the LIBGUESTFS_HV environment variable.

Setting hv to NULL restores the default qemu binary.

Note that you should call this function as early as possible after creating the handle. This is because some pre-launch operations depend on testing qemu features (by running qemu -help). If the qemu binary changes, we don't retest features, and so you might see inconsistent results. Using the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_HV is safest of all since that picks the qemu binary at the same time as the handle is created.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-hv" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## recovery-proc

 set-recovery-proc true|false

If this is called with the parameter false then "launch" does not create a recovery process. The purpose of the recovery process is to stop runaway hypervisor processes in the case where the main program aborts abruptly.

This only has any effect if called before "launch", and the default is true.

About the only time when you would want to disable this is if the main process will fork itself into the background ("daemonize" itself). In this case the recovery process thinks that the main program has disappeared and so kills the hypervisor, which is not very helpful.

## selinux

 set-selinux true|false

This sets the selinux flag that is passed to the appliance at boot time. The default is selinux=0 (disabled).

Note that if SELinux is enabled, it is always in Permissive mode (enforcing=0).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "selinux-relabel" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## smp

 set-smp smp

Change the number of virtual CPUs assigned to the appliance. The default is 1. Increasing this may improve performance, though often it has no effect.

This function must be called before "launch".

## tmpdir

 set-tmpdir tmpdir

Set the directory used by the handle to store temporary files.

The environment variables LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR and TMPDIR control the default value: If LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR is set, then that is the default. Else if TMPDIR is set, then that is the default. Else /tmp is the default.

## trace

 set-trace true|false

If the command trace flag is set to 1, then libguestfs calls, parameters and return values are traced.

If you want to trace C API calls into libguestfs (and other libraries) then possibly a better way is to use the external ltrace(1) command.

Command traces are disabled unless the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_TRACE is defined and set to 1.

Trace messages are normally sent to stderr, unless you register a callback to send them somewhere else (see "set-event-callback").

## set-uuid

 set-uuid device uuid

Set the filesystem UUID on device to uuid. If this fails and the errno is ENOTSUP, means that there is no support for changing the UUID for the type of the specified filesystem.

Only some filesystem types support setting UUIDs.

To read the UUID on a filesystem, call "vfs-uuid".

## set-uuid-random

 set-uuid-random device

Set the filesystem UUID on device to a random UUID. If this fails and the errno is ENOTSUP, means that there is no support for changing the UUID for the type of the specified filesystem.

Only some filesystem types support setting UUIDs.

To read the UUID on a filesystem, call "vfs-uuid".

## verbose

 set-verbose true|false

If verbose is true, this turns on verbose messages.

Verbose messages are disabled unless the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG is defined and set to 1.

Verbose messages are normally sent to stderr, unless you register a callback to send them somewhere else (see "set-event-callback").

## setcon

 setcon context

This sets the SELinux security context of the daemon to the string context.

See the documentation about SELINUX in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "selinux-relabel" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature selinux. See also "feature-available".

## setxattr

 setxattr xattr val vallen path

This call sets the extended attribute named xattr of the file path to the value val (of length vallen). The value is arbitrary 8 bit data.

This command depends on the feature linuxxattrs. See also "feature-available".

## sfdisk

 sfdisk device cyls heads sectors 'lines ...'

This is a direct interface to the sfdisk(8) program for creating partitions on block devices.

device should be a block device, for example /dev/sda.

cyls, heads and sectors are the number of cylinders, heads and sectors on the device, which are passed directly to sfdisk(8) as the -C, -H and -S parameters. If you pass 0 for any of these, then the corresponding parameter is omitted. Usually for ‘large’ disks, you can just pass 0 for these, but for small (floppy-sized) disks, sfdisk(8) (or rather, the kernel) cannot work out the right geometry and you will need to tell it.

lines is a list of lines that we feed to sfdisk(8). For more information refer to the sfdisk(8) manpage.

To create a single partition occupying the whole disk, you would pass lines as a single element list, when the single element being the string , (comma).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-add" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## sfdiskM

 sfdiskM device 'lines ...'

This is a simplified interface to the "sfdisk" command, where partition sizes are specified in megabytes only (rounded to the nearest cylinder) and you don't need to specify the cyls, heads and sectors parameters which were rarely if ever used anyway.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-add" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## sfdisk-N

 sfdisk-N device partnum cyls heads sectors line

This runs sfdisk(8) option to modify just the single partition n (note: n counts from 1).

For other parameters, see "sfdisk". You should usually pass 0 for the cyls/heads/sectors parameters.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-add" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## sfdisk-disk-geometry

 sfdisk-disk-geometry device

This displays the disk geometry of device read from the partition table. Especially in the case where the underlying block device has been resized, this can be different from the kernel’s idea of the geometry (see "sfdisk-kernel-geometry").

The result is in human-readable format, and not designed to be parsed.

## sfdisk-kernel-geometry

 sfdisk-kernel-geometry device

This displays the kernel’s idea of the geometry of device.

The result is in human-readable format, and not designed to be parsed.

## sfdisk-l

 sfdisk-l device

This displays the partition table on device, in the human-readable output of the sfdisk(8) command. It is not intended to be parsed.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-list" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## sh

 sh command

This call runs a command from the guest filesystem via the guest’s /bin/sh.

This is like "command", but passes the command to:

 /bin/sh -c "command"

Depending on the guest’s shell, this usually results in wildcards being expanded, shell expressions being interpolated and so on.

All the provisos about "command" apply to this call.

## sh-lines

 sh-lines command

This is the same as "sh", but splits the result into a list of lines.

## shutdown

 shutdown

This is the opposite of "launch". It performs an orderly shutdown of the backend process(es). If the autosync flag is set (which is the default) then the disk image is synchronized.

If the subprocess exits with an error then this function will return an error, which should not be ignored (it may indicate that the disk image could not be written out properly).

It is safe to call this multiple times. Extra calls are ignored.

This call does not close or free up the handle. You still need to call "close" afterwards.

"close" will call this if you don't do it explicitly, but note that any errors are ignored in that case.

## sleep

 sleep secs

Sleep for secs seconds.

## stat

 stat path

Returns file information for the given path.

This is the same as the stat(2) system call.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "statns" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## statns

 statns path

Returns file information for the given path.

This is the same as the stat(2) system call.

## statvfs

 statvfs path

Returns file system statistics for any mounted file system. path should be a file or directory in the mounted file system (typically it is the mount point itself, but it doesn't need to be).

This is the same as the statvfs(2) system call.

## strings

 strings path

This runs the strings(1) command on a file and returns the list of printable strings found.

The strings command has, in the past, had problems with parsing untrusted files. These are mitigated in the current version of libguestfs, but see "CVE-2014-8484" in guestfs(3).

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## strings-e

 strings-e encoding path

This is like the "strings" command, but allows you to specify the encoding of strings that are looked for in the source file path.

Allowed encodings are:

s

Single 7-bit-byte characters like ASCII and the ASCII-compatible parts of ISO-8859-X (this is what "strings" uses).

S

Single 8-bit-byte characters.

b

16-bit big endian strings such as those encoded in UTF-16BE or UCS-2BE.

l (lower case letter L)

16-bit little endian such as UTF-16LE and UCS-2LE. This is useful for examining binaries in Windows guests.

B

32-bit big endian such as UCS-4BE.

L

32-bit little endian such as UCS-4LE.

The returned strings are transcoded to UTF-8.

The strings command has, in the past, had problems with parsing untrusted files. These are mitigated in the current version of libguestfs, but see "CVE-2014-8484" in guestfs(3).

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## swapoff-device

 swapoff-device device

This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap device or partition named device. See "swapon-device".

## swapoff-file

 swapoff-file file

This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap on file.

## swapoff-label

 swapoff-label label

This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap on labeled swap partition.

## swapoff-uuid

 swapoff-uuid uuid

This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap partition with the given UUID.

This command depends on the feature linuxfsuuid. See also "feature-available".

## swapon-device

 swapon-device device

This command enables the libguestfs appliance to use the swap device or partition named device. The increased memory is made available for all commands, for example those run using "command" or "sh".

Note that you should not swap to existing guest swap partitions unless you know what you are doing. They may contain hibernation information, or other information that the guest doesn't want you to trash. You also risk leaking information about the host to the guest this way. Instead, attach a new host device to the guest and swap on that.

## swapon-file

 swapon-file file

This command enables swap to a file. See "swapon-device" for other notes.

## swapon-label

 swapon-label label

This command enables swap to a labeled swap partition. See "swapon-device" for other notes.

## swapon-uuid

 swapon-uuid uuid

This command enables swap to a swap partition with the given UUID. See "swapon-device" for other notes.

This command depends on the feature linuxfsuuid. See also "feature-available".

## sync

 sync

This syncs the disk, so that any writes are flushed through to the underlying disk image.

You should always call this if you have modified a disk image, before closing the handle.

## syslinux

 syslinux device [directory:..]

Install the SYSLINUX bootloader on device.

The device parameter must be either a whole disk formatted as a FAT filesystem, or a partition formatted as a FAT filesystem. In the latter case, the partition should be marked as "active" ("part-set-bootable") and a Master Boot Record must be installed (eg. using "pwrite-device") on the first sector of the whole disk. The SYSLINUX package comes with some suitable Master Boot Records. See the syslinux(1) man page for further information.

The optional arguments are:

directory

Install SYSLINUX in the named subdirectory, instead of in the root directory of the FAT filesystem.

Additional configuration can be supplied to SYSLINUX by placing a file called syslinux.cfg on the FAT filesystem, either in the root directory, or under directory if that optional argument is being used. For further information about the contents of this file, see syslinux(1).

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature syslinux. See also "feature-available".

## tail

 tail path

This command returns up to the last 10 lines of a file as a list of strings.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## tail-n

 tail-n nrlines path

If the parameter nrlines is a positive number, this returns the last nrlines lines of the file path.

If the parameter nrlines is a negative number, this returns lines from the file path, starting with the -nrlines'th line.

If the parameter nrlines is zero, this returns an empty list.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

## tar-in-opts

 tar-in (tarfile|-) directory [compress:..] [xattrs:true|false] [selinux:true|false] [acls:true|false]

This command uploads and unpacks local file tarfile into directory.

The optional compress flag controls compression. If not given, then the input should be an uncompressed tar file. Otherwise one of the following strings may be given to select the compression type of the input file: compress, gzip, bzip2, xz, lzop. (Note that not all builds of libguestfs will support all of these compression types).

The other optional arguments are:

xattrs

If set to true, extended attributes are restored from the tar file.

selinux

If set to true, SELinux contexts are restored from the tar file.

acls

If set to true, POSIX ACLs are restored from the tar file.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## tar-out-opts

 tar-out directory (tarfile|-) [compress:..] [numericowner:true|false] [excludes:..] [xattrs:true|false] [selinux:true|false] [acls:true|false]

This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file tarfile.

The optional compress flag controls compression. If not given, then the output will be an uncompressed tar file. Otherwise one of the following strings may be given to select the compression type of the output file: compress, gzip, bzip2, xz, lzop. (Note that not all builds of libguestfs will support all of these compression types).

The other optional arguments are:

excludes

A list of wildcards. Files are excluded if they match any of the wildcards.

numericowner

If set to true, the output tar file will contain UID/GID numbers instead of user/group names.

xattrs

If set to true, extended attributes are saved in the output tar.

selinux

If set to true, SELinux contexts are saved in the output tar.

acls

If set to true, POSIX ACLs are saved in the output tar.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## tgz-in

 tgz-in (tarball|-) directory

This command uploads and unpacks local file tarball (a gzip compressed tar file) into directory.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-in" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## tgz-out

 tgz-out directory (tarball|-)

This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file tarball.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-out" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## touch

 touch path

Touch acts like the touch(1) command. It can be used to update the timestamps on a file, or, if the file does not exist, to create a new zero-length file.

This command only works on regular files, and will fail on other file types such as directories, symbolic links, block special etc.

## truncate

 truncate path

This command truncates path to a zero-length file. The file must exist already.

## truncate-size

 truncate-size path size

This command truncates path to size size bytes. The file must exist already.

If the current file size is less than size then the file is extended to the required size with zero bytes. This creates a sparse file (ie. disk blocks are not allocated for the file until you write to it). To create a non-sparse file of zeroes, use "fallocate64" instead.

## tune2fs

 tune2fs device [force:true|false] [maxmountcount:N] [mountcount:N] [errorbehavior:..] [group:N] [intervalbetweenchecks:N] [reservedblockspercentage:N] [lastmounteddirectory:..] [reservedblockscount:N] [user:N]

This call allows you to adjust various filesystem parameters of an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem called device.

The optional parameters are:

force

Force tune2fs to complete the operation even in the face of errors. This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -f option.

maxmountcount

Set the number of mounts after which the filesystem is checked by e2fsck(8). If this is 0 then the number of mounts is disregarded. This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -c option.

mountcount

Set the number of times the filesystem has been mounted. This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -C option.

errorbehavior

Change the behavior of the kernel code when errors are detected. Possible values currently are: continue, remount-ro, panic. In practice these options don't really make any difference, particularly for write errors.

This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -e option.

group

Set the group which can use reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -g option except that it can only be specified as a number.

intervalbetweenchecks

Adjust the maximal time between two filesystem checks (in seconds). If the option is passed as 0 then time-dependent checking is disabled.

This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -i option.

reservedblockspercentage

Set the percentage of the filesystem which may only be allocated by privileged processes. This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -m option.

lastmounteddirectory

Set the last mounted directory. This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -M option.

reservedblockscount Set the number of reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -r option.
user

Set the user who can use the reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs(8) -u option except that it can only be specified as a number.

To get the current values of filesystem parameters, see "tune2fs-l". For precise details of how tune2fs works, see the tune2fs(8) man page.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## tune2fs-l

 tune2fs-l device

This returns the contents of the ext2, ext3 or ext4 filesystem superblock on device.

It is the same as running tune2fs -l device. See tune2fs(8) manpage for more details. The list of fields returned isn't clearly defined, and depends on both the version of tune2fs that libguestfs was built against, and the filesystem itself.

## txz-in

 txz-in (tarball|-) directory

This command uploads and unpacks local file tarball (an xz compressed tar file) into directory.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-in" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature xz. See also "feature-available".

## txz-out

 txz-out directory (tarball|-)

This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file tarball (as an xz compressed tar archive).

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-out" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

This command depends on the feature xz. See also "feature-available".

 umask mask

This function sets the mask used for creating new files and device nodes to mask & 0777.

Typical umask values would be 022 which creates new files with permissions like "-rw-r--r--" or "-rwxr-xr-x", and 002 which creates new files with permissions like "-rw-rw-r--" or "-rwxrwxr-x".

The default umask is 022. This is important because it means that directories and device nodes will be created with 0644 or 0755 mode even if you specify 0777.

This call returns the previous umask.

## umount-opts

 umount pathordevice [force:true|false] [lazyunmount:true|false]

This unmounts the given filesystem. The filesystem may be specified either by its mountpoint (path) or the device which contains the filesystem.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

## unmount-all

 umount-all

This unmounts all mounted filesystems.

Some internal mounts are not unmounted by this call.

## umount-local

 umount-local [retry:true|false]

If libguestfs is exporting the filesystem on a local mountpoint, then this unmounts it.

See "MOUNT LOCAL" in guestfs(3) for full documentation.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

 upload (filename|-) remotefilename

Upload local file filename to remotefilename on the filesystem.

filename can also be a named pipe.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

 upload-offset (filename|-) remotefilename offset

Upload local file filename to remotefilename on the filesystem.

remotefilename is overwritten starting at the byte offset specified. The intention is to overwrite parts of existing files or devices, although if a non-existent file is specified then it is created with a "hole" before offset. The size of the data written is implicit in the size of the source filename.

Note that there is no limit on the amount of data that can be uploaded with this call, unlike with "pwrite", and this call always writes the full amount unless an error occurs.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

## user-cancel

 user-cancel

Unlike most other libguestfs calls, this function is signal safe and thread safe. You can call it from a signal handler or from another thread, without needing to do any locking.

The transfer that was in progress (if there is one) will stop shortly afterwards, and will return an error. The errno (see "guestfs_last_errno") is set to EINTR, so you can test for this to find out if the operation was cancelled or failed because of another error.

No cleanup is performed: for example, if a file was being uploaded then after cancellation there may be a partially uploaded file. It is the caller’s responsibility to clean up if necessary.

There are two common places that you might call "user-cancel":

In an interactive text-based program, you might call it from a SIGINT signal handler so that pressing ^C cancels the current operation. (You also need to call "set-pgroup" so that child processes don't receive the ^C signal).

In a graphical program, when the main thread is displaying a progress bar with a cancel button, wire up the cancel button to call this function.

## utimens

 utimens path atsecs atnsecs mtsecs mtnsecs

This command sets the timestamps of a file with nanosecond precision.

atsecs, atnsecs are the last access time (atime) in secs and nanoseconds from the epoch.

mtsecs, mtnsecs are the last modification time (mtime) in secs and nanoseconds from the epoch.

If the *nsecs field contains the special value -1 then the corresponding timestamp is set to the current time. (The *secs field is ignored in this case).

If the *nsecs field contains the special value -2 then the corresponding timestamp is left unchanged. (The *secs field is ignored in this case).

## utsname

 utsname

This returns the kernel version of the appliance, where this is available. This information is only useful for debugging. Nothing in the returned structure is defined by the API.

## version

 version

Return the libguestfs version number that the program is linked against.

Note that because of dynamic linking this is not necessarily the version of libguestfs that you compiled against. You can compile the program, and then at runtime dynamically link against a completely different libguestfs.so library.

This call was added in version 1.0.58. In previous versions of libguestfs there was no way to get the version number. From C code you can use dynamic linker functions to find out if this symbol exists (if it doesn't, then it’s an earlier version).

The call returns a structure with four elements. The first three (major, minor and release) are numbers and correspond to the usual version triplet. The fourth element (extra) is a string and is normally empty, but may be used for distro-specific information.

To construct the original version string: $major.$minor.$release$extra

Note: Don't use this call to test for availability of features. In enterprise distributions we backport features from later versions into earlier versions, making this an unreliable way to test for features. Use "available" or "feature-available" instead.

## vfs-label

 vfs-label mountable

This returns the label of the filesystem on mountable.

If the filesystem is unlabeled, this returns the empty string.

To find a filesystem from the label, use "findfs-label".

## vfs-minimum-size

 vfs-minimum-size mountable

Get the minimum size of filesystem in bytes. This is the minimum possible size for filesystem shrinking.

If getting minimum size of specified filesystem is not supported, this will fail and set errno as ENOTSUP.

## vfs-type

 vfs-type mountable

This command gets the filesystem type corresponding to the filesystem on mountable.

For most filesystems, the result is the name of the Linux VFS module which would be used to mount this filesystem if you mounted it without specifying the filesystem type. For example a string such as ext3 or ntfs.

## get-uuid

 vfs-uuid mountable

This returns the filesystem UUID of the filesystem on mountable.

If the filesystem does not have a UUID, this returns the empty string.

To find a filesystem from the UUID, use "findfs-uuid".

## vg-activate

 vg-activate true|false 'volgroups ...'

This command activates or (if activate is false) deactivates all logical volumes in the listed volume groups volgroups.

This command is the same as running vgchange -a y|n volgroups...

Note that if volgroups is an empty list then all volume groups are activated or deactivated.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## vg-activate-all

 vg-activate-all true|false

This command activates or (if activate is false) deactivates all logical volumes in all volume groups.

This command is the same as running vgchange -a y|n

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## vgchange-uuid

 vgchange-uuid vg

Generate a new random UUID for the volume group vg.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## vgchange-uuid-all

 vgchange-uuid-all

Generate new random UUIDs for all volume groups.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## vgcreate

 vgcreate volgroup 'physvols ...'

This creates an LVM volume group called volgroup from the non-empty list of physical volumes physvols.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## vglvuuids

 vglvuuids vgname

Given a VG called vgname, this returns the UUIDs of all the logical volumes created in this volume group.

You can use this along with "lvs" and "lvuuid" calls to associate logical volumes and volume groups.

## vgmeta

 vgmeta vgname

vgname is an LVM volume group. This command examines the volume group and returns its metadata.

Note that the metadata is an internal structure used by LVM, subject to change at any time, and is provided for information only.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## vgpvuuids

 vgpvuuids vgname

Given a VG called vgname, this returns the UUIDs of all the physical volumes that this volume group resides on.

You can use this along with "pvs" and "pvuuid" calls to associate physical volumes and volume groups.

## vgremove

 vgremove vgname

Remove an LVM volume group vgname, (for example VG).

This also forcibly removes all logical volumes in the volume group (if any).

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## vgrename

 vgrename volgroup newvolgroup

Rename a volume group volgroup with the new name newvolgroup.

## vgs

 vgs

List all the volumes groups detected. This is the equivalent of the vgs(8) command.

This returns a list of just the volume group names that were detected (eg. VolGroup00).

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## vgs-full

 vgs-full

List all the volumes groups detected. This is the equivalent of the vgs(8) command. The "full" version includes all fields.

This command depends on the feature lvm2. See also "feature-available".

## vgscan

 vgscan

This rescans all block devices and rebuilds the list of LVM physical volumes, volume groups and logical volumes.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "lvm-scan" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## vguuid

 vguuid vgname

This command returns the UUID of the LVM VG named vgname.

## wc-c

 wc-c path

This command counts the characters in a file, using the wc -c external command.

## wc-l

 wc-l path

This command counts the lines in a file, using the wc -l external command.

## wc-w

 wc-w path

This command counts the words in a file, using the wc -w external command.

## wipefs

 wipefs device

This command erases filesystem or RAID signatures from the specified device to make the filesystem invisible to libblkid.

This does not erase the filesystem itself nor any other data from the device.

Compare with "zero" which zeroes the first few blocks of a device.

This command depends on the feature wipefs. See also "feature-available".

## write

 write path content

This call creates a file called path. The content of the file is the string content (which can contain any 8 bit data).

## write-append

 write-append path content

This call appends content to the end of file path. If path does not exist, then a new file is created.

## write-file

 write-file path content size

This call creates a file called path. The contents of the file is the string content (which can contain any 8 bit data), with length size.

As a special case, if size is 0 then the length is calculated using strlen (so in this case the content cannot contain embedded ASCII NULs).

NB. Owing to a bug, writing content containing ASCII NUL characters does not work, even if the length is specified.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "write" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

 xfs-admin device [extunwritten:true|false] [imgfile:true|false] [v2log:true|false] [projid32bit:true|false] [lazycounter:true|false] [label:..] [uuid:..]

Change the parameters of the XFS filesystem on device.

Devices that are mounted cannot be modified. Administrators must unmount filesystems before this call can modify parameters.

Some of the parameters of a mounted filesystem can be examined and modified using the "xfs-info" and "xfs-growfs" calls.

Beginning in XFS version 5, it is no longer possible to modify the lazy-counters setting (ie. lazycounter parameter has no effect).

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature xfs. See also "feature-available".

## xfs-growfs

 xfs-growfs path [datasec:true|false] [logsec:true|false] [rtsec:true|false] [datasize:N] [logsize:N] [rtsize:N] [rtextsize:N] [maxpct:N]

Grow the XFS filesystem mounted at path.

The returned struct contains geometry information. Missing fields are returned as -1 (for numeric fields) or empty string.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature xfs. See also "feature-available".

## xfs-info

 xfs-info pathordevice

pathordevice is a mounted XFS filesystem or a device containing an XFS filesystem. This command returns the geometry of the filesystem.

The returned struct contains geometry information. Missing fields are returned as -1 (for numeric fields) or empty string.

This command depends on the feature xfs. See also "feature-available".

## xfs-repair

 xfs-repair device [forcelogzero:true|false] [nomodify:true|false] [noprefetch:true|false] [forcegeometry:true|false] [maxmem:N] [ihashsize:N] [bhashsize:N] [agstride:N] [logdev:..] [rtdev:..]

Repair corrupt or damaged XFS filesystem on device.

The filesystem is specified using the device argument which should be the device name of the disk partition or volume containing the filesystem. If given the name of a block device, xfs_repair will attempt to find the raw device associated with the specified block device and will use the raw device instead.

Regardless, the filesystem to be repaired must be unmounted, otherwise, the resulting filesystem may be inconsistent or corrupt.

The returned status indicates whether filesystem corruption was detected (returns 1) or was not detected (returns 0).

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

This command depends on the feature xfs. See also "feature-available".

## yara-destroy

 yara-destroy

Destroy previously loaded Yara rules in order to free libguestfs resources.

This command depends on the feature libyara. See also "feature-available".

 yara-load (filename|-)

Upload a set of Yara rules from local file filename.

Yara rules allow to categorize files based on textual or binary patterns within their content. See "yara-scan" to see how to scan files with the loaded rules.

Rules can be in binary format, as when compiled with yarac command, or in source code format. In the latter case, the rules will be first compiled and then loaded.

Rules in source code format cannot include external files. In such cases, it is recommended to compile them first.

Previously loaded rules will be destroyed.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command depends on the feature libyara. See also "feature-available".

## yara-scan

 yara-scan path

Scan a file with the previously loaded Yara rules.

For each matching rule, a yara_detection structure is returned.

The yara_detection structure contains the following fields.

yara_name

Path of the file matching a Yara rule.

yara_rule

Identifier of the Yara rule which matched against the given file.

This command depends on the feature libyara. See also "feature-available".

## zegrep

 zegrep regex path

This calls the external zegrep program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zegrepi

 zegrepi regex path

This calls the external zegrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zero

 zero device

This command writes zeroes over the first few blocks of device.

How many blocks are zeroed isn't specified (but it’s not enough to securely wipe the device). It should be sufficient to remove any partition tables, filesystem superblocks and so on.

If blocks are already zero, then this command avoids writing zeroes. This prevents the underlying device from becoming non-sparse or growing unnecessarily.

## zero-device

 zero-device device

This command writes zeroes over the entire device. Compare with "zero" which just zeroes the first few blocks of a device.

If blocks are already zero, then this command avoids writing zeroes. This prevents the underlying device from becoming non-sparse or growing unnecessarily.

## zero-free-space

 zero-free-space directory

Zero the free space in the filesystem mounted on directory. The filesystem must be mounted read-write.

The filesystem contents are not affected, but any free space in the filesystem is freed.

Free space is not "trimmed". You may want to call "fstrim" either as an alternative to this, or after calling this, depending on your requirements.

## zerofree

 zerofree device

This runs the zerofree program on device. This program claims to zero unused inodes and disk blocks on an ext2/3 filesystem, thus making it possible to compress the filesystem more effectively.

You should not run this program if the filesystem is mounted.

It is possible that using this program can damage the filesystem or data on the filesystem.

This command depends on the feature zerofree. See also "feature-available".

## zfgrep

 zfgrep pattern path

This calls the external zfgrep program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zfgrepi

 zfgrepi pattern path

This calls the external zfgrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zfile

 zfile meth path

This command runs file(1) after first decompressing path using meth.

meth must be one of gzip, compress or bzip2.

Since 1.0.63, use "file" instead which can now process compressed files.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "file" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zgrep

 zgrep regex path

This calls the external zgrep(1) program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

## zgrepi

 zgrepi regex path

This calls the external zgrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

# EXIT STATUS

guestfish returns 0 if the commands completed without error, or 1 if there was an error.

# ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

EDITOR

The edit command uses $EDITOR as the editor. If not set, it uses vi. GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE The display command uses $GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE to display images. If not set, it uses display(1).

GUESTFISH_INIT

Printed when guestfish starts. See "PROMPT".

GUESTFISH_OUTPUT

Printed before guestfish output. See "PROMPT".

GUESTFISH_PID

Used with the --remote option to specify the remote guestfish process to control. See section "REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET".

GUESTFISH_PS1

Set the command prompt. See "PROMPT".

GUESTFISH_RESTORE

Printed before guestfish exits. See "PROMPT".

HEXEDITOR

The "hexedit" command uses $HEXEDITOR as the external hex editor. If not specified, the external hexedit(1) program is used. HOME If compiled with GNU readline support, various files in the home directory can be used. See "FILES". LIBGUESTFS_APPEND Pass additional options to the guest kernel. LIBGUESTFS_ATTACH_METHOD This is the old way to set LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND. LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND Choose the default way to create the appliance. See "guestfs_set_backend" in guestfs(3). LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND_SETTINGS A colon-separated list of backend-specific settings. See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3), "BACKEND SETTINGS" in guestfs(3). LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR The location where libguestfs will cache its appliance, when using a supermin appliance. The appliance is cached and shared between all handles which have the same effective user ID. If LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR is not set, then TMPDIR is used. If TMPDIR is not set, then /var/tmp is used. See also "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR", "set-cachedir". LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG Set LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 to enable verbose messages. This has the same effect as using the -v option. LIBGUESTFS_HV Set the default hypervisor (usually qemu) binary that libguestfs uses. If not set, then the qemu which was found at compile time by the configure script is used. LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE Set the memory allocated to the qemu process, in megabytes. For example:  LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE=700 LIBGUESTFS_PATH Set the path that guestfish uses to search for kernel and initrd.img. See the discussion of paths in guestfs(3). LIBGUESTFS_QEMU This is the old way to set LIBGUESTFS_HV. LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR The location where libguestfs will store temporary files used by each handle. If LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR is not set, then TMPDIR is used. If TMPDIR is not set, then /tmp is used. See also "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR", "set-tmpdir". LIBGUESTFS_TRACE Set LIBGUESTFS_TRACE=1 to enable command traces. PAGER The more command uses $PAGER as the pager. If not set, it uses more.

PATH

Libguestfs and guestfish may run some external programs, and rely on $PATH being set to a reasonable value. If using the libvirt backend, libvirt will not work at all unless $PATH contains the path of qemu/KVM.

SUPERMIN_KERNEL
SUPERMIN_KERNEL_VERSION
SUPERMIN_MODULES

These three environment variables allow the kernel that libguestfs uses in the appliance to be selected. If $SUPERMIN_KERNEL is not set, then the most recent host kernel is chosen. For more information about kernel selection, see supermin(1). TMPDIR XDG_RUNTIME_DIR This directory represents a user-specific directory for storing non-essential runtime files. If it is set, then is used to store temporary sockets. Otherwise, /tmp is used. # FILES$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/libguestfs/libguestfs-tools.conf
$HOME/.libguestfs-tools.rc$XDG_CONFIG_DIRS/libguestfs/libguestfs-tools.conf
/etc/libguestfs-tools.conf

This configuration file controls the default read-only or read-write mode (--ro or --rw).

$HOME/.guestfish If compiled with GNU readline support, then the command history is saved in this file.$HOME/.inputrc
/etc/inputrc

If compiled with GNU readline support, then these files can be used to configure readline. For further information, please see "INITIALIZATION FILE" in readline(3).

To write rules which only apply to guestfish, use:

 $if guestfish ...$endif

Variables that you can set in inputrc that change the behaviour of guestfish in useful ways include:

completion-ignore-case (default: on)

By default, guestfish will ignore case when tab-completing paths on the disk. Use:

 set completion-ignore-case off

to make guestfish case sensitive.

test1.img
test2.img (etc)

When using the -N or --new option, the prepared disk or filesystem will be created in the file test1.img in the current directory. The second use of -N will use test2.img and so on. Any existing file with the same name will be overwritten. You can use a different filename by using the filename= prefix.

# AUTHORS

Richard W.M. Jones (rjones at redhat dot com)

Copyright (C) 2009-2020 Red Hat Inc.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

# BUGS

To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

When reporting a bug, please supply:

• The version of libguestfs.

• Where you got libguestfs (eg. which Linux distro, compiled from source, etc)

• Describe the bug accurately and give a way to reproduce it.

• Run libguestfs-test-tool(1) and paste the complete, unedited output into the bug report.