NAME

guestfs-building - How to build libguestfs from source

DESCRIPTION

This manual page describes how to build libguestfs from source.

The main steps are:

REQUIREMENTS

Short cut for Fedora or Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) users

On Fedora, use dnf(8) to install all the requirements:

 dnf builddep libguestfs

On systems still using yum(8), do:

 yum-builddep libguestfs

Short cut for Debian or Ubuntu users

Use APT to install all the requirements:

 apt-get build-dep libguestfs

If that command doesn't work, take a look at the Debian source package http://packages.debian.org/source/libguestfs, at the list of build-depends and build-depends-indep, and install everything listed there.

Full list of requirements

appliance/packagelist.in

Install as many package names found in this file as possible. (It is not strictly required to install all of them).

Note: If you build libguestfs followed by installing appliance packages, the build will not pick them up automatically, even if you do make clean. You have to do this command to clean the old supermin appliance and force a new one to be prepared:

 make -C appliance clean-supermin-appliance
qemu ≥ 1.3.0

Required.

qemu-img ≥ 1.3.0

Required. Virt-p2v and virt-v2v requires qemu-img ≥ 2.2.0.

kernel ≥ 2.6.34

Required. The following features must be enabled: virtio-pci, virtio-serial, virtio-block, virtio-net.

supermin ≥ 5.1.0

Required. For alternatives, see "USING A PREBUILT BINARY APPLIANCE" below.

glibc

Required. We use various glibc-isms, and glibc also provides XDR libraries and the rpcgen tool.

Gcc or Clang

Required. We use __attribute__((cleanup)) which is a GCC extension also supported by Clang.

Perl

Required. Various build steps and tests are written in Perl. Perl is not needed at runtime except if you need to run a small number of virt tools which are still written in Perl.

Perl Pod::Man
Perl Pod::Simple

Required. Part of Perl core.

OCaml ≥ 3.11
OCaml findlib

Required if compiling from git. Optional (but recommended) if compiling from tarball.

autoconf
automake
gettext

Required if compiling from git. Optional if compiling from tarball.

cpio

Required.

gperf

Required.

flex
bison

Required.

Perl-compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE) library

Required.

genisoimage

Required.

libxml2

Required.

ncurses

Required.

augeas ≥ 1.0.0

Required.

xz

Required.

yajl ≥ 2.0.4

Required.

po4a

Required if compiling from git. Optional if compiling from tarball.

hivex ≥ 1.2.7

Required if compiling from git, and highly recommended otherwise. Various core features will be disabled if hivex is not available.

libmagic

Optional. This is the library used by the file(1) command.

libvirt ≥ 0.10.2

Optional. Always use the latest possible version of libvirt.

xmllint

Optional. Used only for tests.

libconfig

Optional. Used to parse libguestfs's own config files, eg. /etc/libguestfs-tools.conf.

libselinux

Optional. Used by the libvirt backend to securely confine the appliance (sVirt).

Berkeley DB utils (db_dump, db_load, etc)

Optional. Usually found in a package called db-utils, db4-utils, db4.X-utils etc.

systemtap

Optional. For userspace probes.

readline

Optional. For nicer command line editing in guestfish(1).

acl

Optional. Library and programs for handling POSIX ACLs.

libcap

Optional. Library and programs for handling Linux capabilities.

libldm

Optional. Library and ldmtool(1) for handling Windows Dynamic Disks.

sd-journal

Optional. Library for accessing systemd journals.

gdisk

Optional. GPT disk support.

netpbm

Optional. Render icons from guests.

icoutils

Optional. Render icons from Windows guests.

Perl Expect

Optional. Perl module used to test virt-rescue(1).

FUSE

Optional. fusermount(1), libfuse and kernel module are all needed if you want guestmount(1) and/or mount-local support.

static glibc

Optional. Used only for testing.

qemu-nbd
nbdkit

Optional. qemu-nbd is used for testing.

virt-p2v(1) requires either qemu-nbd or nbdkit, but these only need to be present on the virt-p2v ISO, they do not need to be installed at compile time.

uml_mkcow

Optional. For the UML backend.

curl

Optional. Used by virt-builder for downloads.

gpg

Optional. Used by virt-builder for checking digital signatures.

liblzma

Optional. If available, virt-builder will use this library for fast, parallel uncompression of templates.

Gtk ≥ 2.24, or 3

Optional.

Used by the virt-p2v graphical user interface.

Either Gtk 2 or Gtk 3 can be used. If you want to select a specific version of Gtk, use ./configure --with-gtk=2 or ./configure --with-gtk=3.

D-Bus

Optional.

If the D-Bus low level C API is available, virt-p2v can send a D-Bus message to logind to inhibit power saving (sleep, suspend, etc) during P2V conversions.

If this API is not available at build time, then very long conversions might be interrupted if the physical machine goes to sleep.

zip
unzip

Optional. Used by virt-v2v to handle OVA files.

python-evtx

Optional. Used by virt-log(1) to parse Windows Event Log files.

OCaml gettext

Optional. For localizing OCaml virt tools.

ocaml-ounit ≥ 2.0.0

Optional. For testing the common OCaml modules.

ocaml-libvirt ≥ 0.6.1.5

Optional. For building the optional virt-v2v test harness.

Perl Module::Build ≥ 0.19
Perl Test::More

Optional. Used to build and test the Perl bindings.

Python ≥ 2.2

Optional. Used to build the Python bindings. For building Python 2 or Python 3 bindings, see "BUILDING PYTHON 2 AND PYTHON 3 BINDINGS" below.

Python unittest

Optional. Used to run the Python testsuite.

Ruby
rake
rubygem-minitest
rubygem-rdoc

Optional. Used to build the Ruby bindings.

Java ≥ 1.6

Optional. Java, JNI and jpackage-utils are needed for building Java bindings.

GHC

Optional. Used to build the Haskell bindings.

PHP
phpize

Optional. Used to build the PHP bindings.

glib2
gobject-introspection
gjs

Optional. Used to build and test the GObject bindings.

LUA

Optional. Used to build the LUA bindings.

Erlang
erl_interface

Optional. Used to build the Erlang bindings.

golang ≥ 1.1.1

Optional. Used to build the Go bindings.

valgrind

Optional. For testing memory problems.

Perl Sys::Virt

Optional.

libvirt-python

Optional. For testing Python libvirt/libguestfs interactions.

Perl Win::Hivex

Optional. Used by the virt-win-reg(1) tool.

Perl Pod::Usage

Optional. Used by some Perl virt tools.

Perl libintl

Optional.

bash-completion

Optional. For tab-completion of commands in bash.

libtsk

Optional. Library for filesystem forensics analysis.

BUILDING FROM GIT

You will need to install additional dependencies autoconf, automake, gettext, OCaml findlib and po4a when building from git.

 git clone https://github.com/libguestfs/libguestfs
 cd libguestfs
 ./autogen.sh
 make

BUILDING FROM TARBALLS

Download and unpack the tarball.

 cd libguestfs-1.xx.yy
 ./configure
 make

RUNNING THE TESTS

DO NOT run the tests as root! Libguestfs can be built and tested as non-root. Running the tests as root could even be dangerous, don't do it.

To sanity check that the build worked, do:

 make quickcheck

To run the basic tests, do:

 make check

There are many more tests you can run. See guestfs-hacking(1) for details.

INSTALLING

DO NOT use make install! You'll end up with conflicting versions of libguestfs installed, and this causes constant headaches for users. See the next section for how to use the ./run script instead.

Distro packagers can use:

 make INSTALLDIRS=vendor DESTDIR=[temp-build-dir] install

THE ./run SCRIPT

You can run guestfish(1), guestmount(1) and the virt tools without needing to install them by using the ./run script in the top directory. This script works by setting several environment variables.

For example:

 ./run guestfish [usual guestfish args ...]

 ./run virt-inspector [usual virt-inspector args ...]

The ./run script adds every libguestfs binary to the $PATH, so the above examples run guestfish and virt-inspector from the build directory (not the globally installed guestfish if there is one).

You can use the script from any directory. If you wanted to run your own libguestfs-using program, then the following command will also work:

 /path/to/libguestfs/run ./my_program [...]

You can also run the C programs under valgrind like this:

 ./run valgrind [valgrind opts...] virt-cat [virt-cat opts...]

or under gdb:

 ./run gdb --args virt-cat [virt-cat opts...]

This also works with sudo (eg. if you need root access for libvirt or to access a block device):

 sudo ./run virt-cat -d LinuxGuest /etc/passwd

To set environment variables, you can either do:

 LIBGUESTFS_HV=/my/qemu ./run guestfish

or:

 ./run env LIBGUESTFS_HV=/my/qemu guestfish

local* FILES

Files in the top source directory that begin with the prefix local* are ignored by git. These files can contain local configuration or scripts that you need to build libguestfs.

I have a file called localconfigure which is a simple wrapper around autogen.sh containing local configure customizations that I need. It looks like this:

 . localenv
 ./autogen.sh \
     -C \
     --enable-werror \
     "$@"

So I can use this to build libguestfs:

 ./localconfigure && make

If there is a file in the top build directory called localenv, then it will be sourced by make. This file can contain any local environment variables needed, eg. for skipping tests:

 # Use an alternate python binary.
 export PYTHON=python3
 # Skip this test, it is broken.
 export SKIP_TEST_BTRFS_FSCK=1

Note that localenv is included by the top Makefile (so it's a Makefile fragment). But if it is also sourced by your localconfigure script then it is used as a shell script.

SELECTED ./configure SETTINGS

There are many ./configure options. Use:

 ./configure --help

to list them all. This section covers some of the more important ones.

--disable-appliance --disable-daemon

See "USING A PREBUILT BINARY APPLIANCE" below.

--disable-erlang
--disable-gobject
--disable-golang
--disable-haskell
--disable-lua
--disable-ocaml
--disable-perl
--disable-php
--disable-python
--disable-ruby

Disable specific language bindings, even if ./configure finds all the necessary libraries are installed so that they could be compiled.

Note that disabling OCaml or Perl will have the knock-on effect of disabling large numbers of virt tools and parts of the test suite.

--disable-fuse

Disable FUSE support in the API and the guestmount(1) tool.

--disable-gnulib-tests

On some platforms the GNUlib test suite can be flaky. This disables it, since errors in the GNUlib test suite are often not important.

--disable-static

Don't build a static linked version of the libguestfs library.

--enable-install-daemon

Normally guestfsd(8) is not installed by make install, since that wouldn't be useful (instead it is "installed" inside the supermin appliance). However if packagers are building "libguestfs live" then they should use this option.

--enable-werror

This turns compiler warnings into errors (ie. -Werror). Use this for development, especially when submitting patches. It should generally not be used for production or distro builds.

--with-default-backend=libvirt

This controls the default method that libguestfs uses to run qemu (see "BACKEND" in guestfs(3)). If not specified, the default backend is direct, which means libguestfs runs qemu directly.

Fedora and Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) ≥ 7 use this flag to change the default backend to libvirt, because (especially in RHEL) the policy is not to allow any program to run qemu except via libvirt.

Note that despite this setting, all backends are built into libguestfs, and you can override the backend at runtime by setting the $LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND environment variable (or using API methods).

--with-extra="distroname=version,libvirt,..."
--with-extra="local"

This option controls the "extra" field returned by "guestfs_version" in guestfs(3) and also printed by virt tools' --version option. It is a free text field, but a good idea is to encode a comma-separated list of facts such as the distro name and version, whether libvirt is the default backend, and anything else that may help with debugging problems raised by users.

For custom and/or local builds, this can be set to local to indicate this is not a distro build.

--without-libvirt

Compile libguestfs without libvirt support, even if libvirt development libraries are installed.

--with-gtk=2

This option forces virt-p2v to be built against Gtk 2, which is currently the most widely tested configuration.

--with-qemu="bin1 bin2 ..."

Provide an alternate qemu binary (or list of binaries). This can be overridden at runtime by setting the LIBGUESTFS_HV environment variable.

--with-qemu-options="-M ... -cpu ..."

If qemu requires extra options to work on this platform, you can pass them here, and they will be used both when testing and running qemu.

--with-supermin-packager-config=yum.conf

This passes the --packager-config option to supermin(1).

The most common use for this is to build the appliance using an alternate repository (instead of using the installed yum/dnf/apt/etc configuration to find and download packages). You might need to use this if you want to build libguestfs without having a network connection. Examples of using this can be found in the Fedora libguestfs.spec file (see "BUILDING A PACKAGE FOR FEDORA" below for resources).

--with-supermin-extra-options="--opt1 --opt2 ..."

Pass additional options to supermin(1). See appliance/make.sh.in to understand precisely what this does.

PYTHON

This environment variable may be set to point to a python binary (eg. python3). When ./configure runs, it inspects this python binary to find the version of Python, the location of Python libraries and so on. See "BUILDING PYTHON 2 AND PYTHON 3 BINDINGS" below.

SUPERMIN

This environment variable can be set to choose an alternative supermin(1) binary. This might be used, for example, if you want to use a newer upstream version of supermin than is packaged for your distro, or if supermin is not packaged at all. On RHEL 7, you must set SUPERMIN=/usr/bin/supermin5 when compiling libguestfs.

NOTES ABOUT QEMU AND KVM

A common problem is with broken or incompatible qemu releases.

Different versions of qemu have problems booting the appliance for different reasons. This varies between versions of qemu, and Linux distributions which add their own patches.

If you find a problem, you could try using your own qemu built from source (qemu is very easy to build from source), with a "qemu wrapper". See "QEMU WRAPPERS" in guestfs(3).

By default the configure script will look for qemu-kvm (KVM support). KVM is much faster than using plain qemu.

You may also need to enable KVM support for non-root users, by following these instructions: http://www.linux-kvm.org/page/FAQ#How_can_I_use_kvm_with_a_non-privileged_user.3F

On some systems, this will work too:

 chmod 0666 /dev/kvm

On some systems, the chmod will not survive a reboot, and you will need to make edits to the udev configuration.

USING CLANG (LLVM) INSTEAD OF GCC

 export CC=clang
 ./configure
 make

USING A PREBUILT BINARY APPLIANCE

To understand what the libguestfs appliance means, see guestfs-internals(1).

If you are using non-Linux, or a Linux distribution that does not have supermin(1) support, or simply if you don't want to build your own libguestfs appliance, then you can use one of the prebuilt binary appliances that we supply: http://libguestfs.org/download/binaries/appliance

Build libguestfs like this:

 ./configure --disable-appliance --disable-daemon
 make

Set $LIBGUESTFS_PATH to the path where you unpacked the appliance tarball, eg:

 export LIBGUESTFS_PATH=/usr/local/lib/guestfs/appliance

and run the libguestfs programs and virt tools in the normal way, eg. using the ./run script (see above).

BUILDING PYTHON 2 AND PYTHON 3 BINDINGS

The ./configure script detects the currently installed version of Python using whatever program is called python in the current $PATH. Libguestfs will build Python 2 or Python 3 bindings as appropriate.

You can override this behaviour by specifying an alternate Python binary, eg:

 PYTHON=/usr/bin/python3 ./configure

To build parallel Python 2 and Python 3 bindings, you will need to build libguestfs twice. The second time, you can disable all the other bindings and tools and just build the Python bindings. See the Fedora spec file (see below) for a complete example of how to do this.

BUILDING A PACKAGE FOR FEDORA

The Fedora spec file is stored under: http://pkgs.fedoraproject.org/cgit/rpms/libguestfs.git/

Libguestfs is built in Fedora using the ordinary Fedora build system (Koji).

BUILDING A PACKAGE FOR RED HAT ENTERPRISE LINUX

Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) builds of libguestfs are heavily patched. There are broadly two types of patches we apply:

The patches we apply to RHEL releases are available publically in the upstream git repository, in a branch called rhel-x.y

For example, the RHEL 7.3 patches are available here: https://github.com/libguestfs/libguestfs/commits/rhel-7.3

The sources and spec files for RHEL versions of libguestfs are available on https://git.centos.org/project/rpms, and see also https://wiki.centos.org/Sources.

BUILDING i686 32 BIT VIRT-P2V

(This section only applies on the x86-64 architecture.)

Building a 32 bit virt-p2v (i686) binary improves compatibility with older hardware. See virt-p2v-make-disk(1) for details. Although virt-p2v is a simple Gtk application, it is not especially easy to build just virt-p2v as a 32 bit application on a 64 bit host. Usually the simplest way is to use a 32 bit chroot or even a 32 bit virtual machine to build libguestfs.

On Fedora you can use the mock(1) tool. For example:

 fedpkg mockbuild --root fedora-23-i386

This will result in a virt-v2v-*.i686.rpm file which can be unpacked to extract the 32 bit virt-p2v binary.

The binary may be compressed to either p2v/virt-p2v.i686.xz, or $libdir/virt-p2v/virt-p2v.i686.xz or $VIRT_P2V_DATA_DIR/virt-p2v.i686.xz as appropriate. This enables the virt-p2v-make-disk(1) --arch option.

SEE ALSO

guestfs(3), guestfs-examples(3), guestfs-hacking(1), guestfs-internals(1), guestfs-performance(1), guestfs-release-notes(1), guestfs-testing(1), libguestfs-test-tool(1), libguestfs-make-fixed-appliance(1), http://libguestfs.org/.

AUTHORS

Richard W.M. Jones (rjones at redhat dot com)

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2009-2017 Red Hat Inc.

LICENSE

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA

BUGS

To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

When reporting a bug, please supply: