NAME

guestfish - the guest filesystem shell

SYNOPSIS

 guestfish [--options] [commands]

 guestfish

 guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img

 guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img -m dev[:mountpoint]

 guestfish -d libvirt-domain

 guestfish [--ro|--rw] -a disk.img -i

 guestfish -d libvirt-domain -i

WARNING

Using guestfish in read/write mode on live virtual machines can be dangerous, potentially causing disk corruption. Use the --ro (read-only) option to use guestfish safely if the disk image or virtual machine might be live.

DESCRIPTION

Guestfish is a shell and command-line tool for examining and modifying virtual machine filesystems. It uses libguestfs and exposes all of the functionality of the guestfs API, see guestfs(3).

Guestfish gives you structured access to the libguestfs API, from shell scripts or the command line or interactively. If you want to rescue a broken virtual machine image, you should look at the virt-rescue(1) command.

EXAMPLES

As an interactive shell

 $ guestfish
 
 Welcome to guestfish, the guest filesystem shell for
 editing virtual machine filesystems.
 
 Type: 'help' for a list of commands
       'man' to read the manual
       'quit' to quit the shell
 
 ><fs> add-ro disk.img
 ><fs> run
 ><fs> list-filesystems
 /dev/sda1: ext4
 /dev/vg_guest/lv_root: ext4
 /dev/vg_guest/lv_swap: swap
 ><fs> mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root /
 ><fs> cat /etc/fstab
 # /etc/fstab
 # Created by anaconda
 [...]
 ><fs> exit

From shell scripts

Create a new /etc/motd file in a guest or disk image:

 guestfish <<_EOF_
 add disk.img
 run
 mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root /
 write /etc/motd "Welcome, new users"
 _EOF_

List the LVM logical volumes in a disk image:

 guestfish -a disk.img --ro <<_EOF_
 run
 lvs
 _EOF_

List all the filesystems in a disk image:

 guestfish -a disk.img --ro <<_EOF_
 run
 list-filesystems
 _EOF_

On one command line

Update /etc/resolv.conf in a guest:

 guestfish \
   add disk.img : run : mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root / : \
   write /etc/resolv.conf "nameserver 1.2.3.4"

Edit /boot/grub/grub.conf interactively:

 guestfish --rw --add disk.img \
   --mount /dev/vg_guest/lv_root \
   --mount /dev/sda1:/boot \
   edit /boot/grub/grub.conf

Mount disks automatically

Use the -i option to automatically mount the disks from a virtual machine:

 guestfish --ro -a disk.img -i cat /etc/group

 guestfish --ro -d libvirt-domain -i cat /etc/group

Another way to edit /boot/grub/grub.conf interactively is:

 guestfish --rw -a disk.img -i edit /boot/grub/grub.conf

As a script interpreter

Create a 100MB disk containing an ext2-formatted partition:

 #!/usr/bin/guestfish -f
 sparse test1.img 100M
 run
 part-disk /dev/sda mbr
 mkfs ext2 /dev/sda1

Start with a prepared disk

An alternate way to create a 100MB disk called test1.img containing a single ext2-formatted partition:

 guestfish -N fs

To list what is available do:

 guestfish -N help | less

Remote drives

Access a remote disk using ssh:

 guestfish -a ssh://example.com/path/to/disk.img

Remote control

 eval "`guestfish --listen`"
 guestfish --remote add-ro disk.img
 guestfish --remote run
 guestfish --remote lvs

OPTIONS

--help

Displays general help on options.

-h
--cmd-help

Lists all available guestfish commands.

-h cmd
--cmd-help cmd

Displays detailed help on a single command cmd.

-a image
--add image

Add a block device or virtual machine image to the shell.

The format of the disk image is auto-detected. To override this and force a particular format use the --format=.. option.

Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the add command, with readonly:true if the --ro flag was given, and with format:... if the --format=... flag was given.

-a URI
--add URI

Add a remote disk. See "ADDING REMOTE STORAGE".

-c URI
--connect URI

When used in conjunction with the -d option, this specifies the libvirt URI to use. The default is to use the default libvirt connection.

--csh

If using the --listen option and a csh-like shell, use this option. See section "REMOTE CONTROL AND CSH" below.

-d libvirt-domain
--domain libvirt-domain

Add disks from the named libvirt domain. If the --ro option is also used, then any libvirt domain can be used. However in write mode, only libvirt domains which are shut down can be named here.

Domain UUIDs can be used instead of names.

Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the add-domain command, with readonly:true if the --ro flag was given, and with format:... if the --format=... flag was given.

--echo-keys

When prompting for keys and passphrases, guestfish normally turns echoing off so you cannot see what you are typing. If you are not worried about Tempest attacks and there is no one else in the room you can specify this flag to see what you are typing.

-f file
--file file

Read commands from file. To write pure guestfish scripts, use:

 #!/usr/bin/guestfish -f
--format=raw|qcow2|..
--format

The default for the -a option is to auto-detect the format of the disk image. Using this forces the disk format for -a options which follow on the command line. Using --format with no argument switches back to auto-detection for subsequent -a options.

For example:

 guestfish --format=raw -a disk.img

forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img.

 guestfish --format=raw -a disk.img --format -a another.img

forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img and reverts to auto-detection for another.img.

If you have untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should use this option to specify the disk format. This avoids a possible security problem with malicious guests (CVE-2010-3851). See also "add".

-i
--inspector

Using virt-inspector(1) code, inspect the disks looking for an operating system and mount filesystems as they would be mounted on the real virtual machine.

Typical usage is either:

 guestfish -d myguest -i

(for an inactive libvirt domain called myguest), or:

 guestfish --ro -d myguest -i

(for active domains, readonly), or specify the block device directly:

 guestfish --rw -a /dev/Guests/MyGuest -i

Note that the command line syntax changed slightly over older versions of guestfish. You can still use the old syntax:

 guestfish [--ro] -i disk.img

 guestfish [--ro] -i libvirt-domain

Using this flag is mostly equivalent to using the inspect-os command and then using other commands to mount the filesystems that were found.

--keys-from-stdin

Read key or passphrase parameters from stdin. The default is to try to read passphrases from the user by opening /dev/tty.

--listen

Fork into the background and listen for remote commands. See section "REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET" below.

--live

Connect to a live virtual machine. (Experimental, see "ATTACHING TO RUNNING DAEMONS" in guestfs(3)).

-m dev[:mountpoint[:options[:fstype]]]
--mount dev[:mountpoint[:options[:fstype]]]

Mount the named partition or logical volume on the given mountpoint.

If the mountpoint is omitted, it defaults to /.

You have to mount something on / before most commands will work.

If any -m or --mount options are given, the guest is automatically launched.

If you don't know what filesystems a disk image contains, you can either run guestfish without this option, then list the partitions, filesystems and LVs available (see "list-partitions", "list-filesystems" and "lvs" commands), or you can use the virt-filesystems(1) program.

The third (and rarely used) part of the mount parameter is the list of mount options used to mount the underlying filesystem. If this is not given, then the mount options are either the empty string or ro (the latter if the --ro flag is used). By specifying the mount options, you override this default choice. Probably the only time you would use this is to enable ACLs and/or extended attributes if the filesystem can support them:

 -m /dev/sda1:/:acl,user_xattr

Using this flag is equivalent to using the mount-options command.

The fourth part of the parameter is the filesystem driver to use, such as ext3 or ntfs. This is rarely needed, but can be useful if multiple drivers are valid for a filesystem (eg: ext2 and ext3), or if libguestfs misidentifies a filesystem.

--network

Enable QEMU user networking in the guest.

-N [filename=]type
--new [filename=]type
-N help

Prepare a fresh disk image formatted as "type". This is an alternative to the -a option: whereas -a adds an existing disk, -N creates a preformatted disk with a filesystem and adds it. See "PREPARED DISK IMAGES" below.

-n
--no-sync

Disable autosync. This is enabled by default. See the discussion of autosync in the guestfs(3) manpage.

--no-dest-paths

Don't tab-complete paths on the guest filesystem. It is useful to be able to hit the tab key to complete paths on the guest filesystem, but this causes extra "hidden" guestfs calls to be made, so this option is here to allow this feature to be disabled.

--pipe-error

If writes fail to pipe commands (see "PIPES" below), then the command returns an error.

The default (also for historical reasons) is to ignore such errors so that:

 ><fs> command_with_lots_of_output | head

doesn't give an error.

--progress-bars

Enable progress bars, even when guestfish is used non-interactively.

Progress bars are enabled by default when guestfish is used as an interactive shell.

--no-progress-bars

Disable progress bars.

--remote[=pid]

Send remote commands to $GUESTFISH_PID or pid. See section "REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET" below.

-r
--ro

This changes the -a, -d and -m options so that disks are added and mounts are done read-only.

The option must always be used if the disk image or virtual machine might be running, and is generally recommended in cases where you don't need write access to the disk.

Note that prepared disk images created with -N are not affected by this option. Also commands like add are not affected - you have to specify the readonly:true option explicitly if you need it.

See also "OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE" below.

--selinux

Enable SELinux support for the guest. See "SELINUX" in guestfs(3).

-v
--verbose

Enable very verbose messages. This is particularly useful if you find a bug.

-V
--version

Display the guestfish / libguestfs version number and exit.

-w
--rw

This changes the -a, -d and -m options so that disks are added and mounts are done read-write.

See "OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE" below.

-x

Echo each command before executing it.

COMMANDS ON COMMAND LINE

Any additional (non-option) arguments are treated as commands to execute.

Commands to execute should be separated by a colon (:), where the colon is a separate parameter. Thus:

 guestfish cmd [args...] : cmd [args...] : cmd [args...] ...

If there are no additional arguments, then we enter a shell, either an interactive shell with a prompt (if the input is a terminal) or a non-interactive shell.

In either command line mode or non-interactive shell, the first command that gives an error causes the whole shell to exit. In interactive mode (with a prompt) if a command fails, you can continue to enter commands.

USING launch (OR run)

As with guestfs(3), you must first configure your guest by adding disks, then launch it, then mount any disks you need, and finally issue actions/commands. So the general order of the day is:

run is a synonym for launch. You must launch (or run) your guest before mounting or performing any other commands.

The only exception is that if any of the -i, -m, --mount, -N or --new options were given then run is done automatically, simply because guestfish can't perform the action you asked for without doing this.

OPENING DISKS FOR READ AND WRITE

The guestfish, guestmount(1) and virt-rescue(1) options --ro and --rw affect whether the other command line options -a, -c, -d, -i and -m open disk images read-only or for writing.

In libguestfs ≤ 1.10, guestfish, guestmount and virt-rescue defaulted to opening disk images supplied on the command line for write. To open a disk image read-only you have to do -a image --ro.

This matters: If you accidentally open a live VM disk image writable then you will cause irreversible disk corruption.

In a future libguestfs we intend to change the default the other way. Disk images will be opened read-only. You will have to either specify guestfish --rw, guestmount --rw, virt-rescue --rw, or change the configuration file in order to get write access for disk images specified by those other command line options.

This version of guestfish, guestmount and virt-rescue has a --rw option which does nothing (it is already the default). However it is highly recommended that you use this option to indicate that you need write access, and prepare your scripts for the day when this option will be required for write access.

Note: This does not affect commands like "add" and "mount", or any other libguestfs program apart from guestfish and guestmount.

QUOTING

You can quote ordinary parameters using either single or double quotes. For example:

 add "file with a space.img"

 rm '/file name'

 rm '/"'

A few commands require a list of strings to be passed. For these, use a whitespace-separated list, enclosed in quotes. Strings containing whitespace to be passed through must be enclosed in single quotes. A literal single quote must be escaped with a backslash.

 vgcreate VG "/dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1"
 command "/bin/echo 'foo      bar'"
 command "/bin/echo \'foo\'"

ESCAPE SEQUENCES IN DOUBLE QUOTED ARGUMENTS

In double-quoted arguments (only) use backslash to insert special characters:

\a

Alert (bell) character.

\b

Backspace character.

\f

Form feed character.

\n

Newline character.

\r

Carriage return character.

\t

Horizontal tab character.

\v

Vertical tab character.

\"

A literal double quote character.

\ooo

A character with octal value ooo. There must be precisely 3 octal digits (unlike C).

\xhh

A character with hex value hh. There must be precisely 2 hex digits.

In the current implementation \000 and \x00 cannot be used in strings.

\\

A literal backslash character.

OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS

Some commands take optional arguments. These arguments appear in this documentation as [argname:..]. You can use them as in these examples:

 add filename

 add filename readonly:true

 add filename format:qcow2 readonly:false

Each optional argument can appear at most once. All optional arguments must appear after the required ones.

NUMBERS

This section applies to all commands which can take integers as parameters.

SIZE SUFFIX

When the command takes a parameter measured in bytes, you can use one of the following suffixes to specify kilobytes, megabytes and larger sizes:

k or K or KiB

The size in kilobytes (multiplied by 1024).

KB

The size in SI 1000 byte units.

M or MiB

The size in megabytes (multiplied by 1048576).

MB

The size in SI 1000000 byte units.

G or GiB

The size in gigabytes (multiplied by 2**30).

GB

The size in SI 10**9 byte units.

T or TiB

The size in terabytes (multiplied by 2**40).

TB

The size in SI 10**12 byte units.

P or PiB

The size in petabytes (multiplied by 2**50).

PB

The size in SI 10**15 byte units.

E or EiB

The size in exabytes (multiplied by 2**60).

EB

The size in SI 10**18 byte units.

Z or ZiB

The size in zettabytes (multiplied by 2**70).

ZB

The size in SI 10**21 byte units.

Y or YiB

The size in yottabytes (multiplied by 2**80).

YB

The size in SI 10**24 byte units.

For example:

 truncate-size /file 1G

would truncate the file to 1 gigabyte.

Be careful because a few commands take sizes in kilobytes or megabytes (eg. the parameter to "memsize" is specified in megabytes already). Adding a suffix will probably not do what you expect.

OCTAL AND HEXADECIMAL NUMBERS

For specifying the radix (base) use the C convention: 0 to prefix an octal number or 0x to prefix a hexadecimal number. For example:

 1234      decimal number 1234
 02322     octal number, equivalent to decimal 1234
 0x4d2     hexadecimal number, equivalent to decimal 1234

When using the chmod command, you almost always want to specify an octal number for the mode, and you must prefix it with 0 (unlike the Unix chmod(1) program):

 chmod 0777 /public  # OK
 chmod 777 /public   # WRONG! This is mode 777 decimal = 01411 octal.

Commands that return numbers usually print them in decimal, but some commands print numbers in other radices (eg. umask prints the mode in octal, preceded by 0).

WILDCARDS AND GLOBBING

Neither guestfish nor the underlying guestfs API performs wildcard expansion (globbing) by default. So for example the following will not do what you expect:

 rm-rf /home/*

Assuming you don't have a directory called literally /home/* then the above command will return an error.

To perform wildcard expansion, use the glob command.

 glob rm-rf /home/*

runs rm-rf on each path that matches (ie. potentially running the command many times), equivalent to:

 rm-rf /home/jim
 rm-rf /home/joe
 rm-rf /home/mary

glob only works on simple guest paths and not on device names.

If you have several parameters, each containing a wildcard, then glob will perform a Cartesian product.

COMMENTS

Any line which starts with a # character is treated as a comment and ignored. The # can optionally be preceded by whitespace, but not by a command. For example:

 # this is a comment
         # this is a comment
 foo # NOT a comment

Blank lines are also ignored.

RUNNING COMMANDS LOCALLY

Any line which starts with a ! character is treated as a command sent to the local shell (/bin/sh or whatever system(3) uses). For example:

 !mkdir local
 tgz-out /remote local/remote-data.tar.gz

will create a directory local on the host, and then export the contents of /remote on the mounted filesystem to local/remote-data.tar.gz. (See tgz-out).

To change the local directory, use the lcd command. !cd will have no effect, due to the way that subprocesses work in Unix.

LOCAL COMMANDS WITH INLINE EXECUTION

If a line starts with <! then the shell command is executed (as for !), but subsequently any output (stdout) of the shell command is parsed and executed as guestfish commands.

Thus you can use shell script to construct arbitrary guestfish commands which are then parsed by guestfish.

For example it is tedious to create a sequence of files (eg. /foo.1 through /foo.100) using guestfish commands alone. However this is simple if we use a shell script to create the guestfish commands for us:

 <! for n in `seq 1 100`; do echo write /foo.$n $n; done

or with names like /foo.001:

 <! for n in `seq 1 100`; do printf "write /foo.%03d %d\n" $n $n; done

When using guestfish interactively it can be helpful to just run the shell script first (ie. remove the initial < character so it is just an ordinary ! local command), see what guestfish commands it would run, and when you are happy with those prepend the < character to run the guestfish commands for real.

PIPES

Use command <space> | command to pipe the output of the first command (a guestfish command) to the second command (any host command). For example:

 cat /etc/passwd | awk -F: '$3 == 0 { print }'

(where cat is the guestfish cat command, but awk is the host awk program). The above command would list all accounts in the guest filesystem which have UID 0, ie. root accounts including backdoors. Other examples:

 hexdump /bin/ls | head
 list-devices | tail -1
 tgz-out / - | tar ztf -

The space before the pipe symbol is required, any space after the pipe symbol is optional. Everything after the pipe symbol is just passed straight to the host shell, so it can contain redirections, globs and anything else that makes sense on the host side.

To use a literal argument which begins with a pipe symbol, you have to quote it, eg:

 echo "|"

HOME DIRECTORIES

If a parameter starts with the character ~ then the tilde may be expanded as a home directory path (either ~ for the current user's home directory, or ~user for another user).

Note that home directory expansion happens for users known on the host, not in the guest filesystem.

To use a literal argument which begins with a tilde, you have to quote it, eg:

 echo "~"

ENCRYPTED DISKS

Libguestfs has some support for Linux guests encrypted according to the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) standard, which includes nearly all whole disk encryption systems used by modern Linux guests. Currently only LVM-on-LUKS is supported.

Identify encrypted block devices and partitions using "vfs-type":

 ><fs> vfs-type /dev/sda2
 crypto_LUKS

Then open those devices using "luks-open". This creates a device-mapper device called /dev/mapper/luksdev.

 ><fs> luks-open /dev/sda2 luksdev
 Enter key or passphrase ("key"): <enter the passphrase>

Finally you have to tell LVM to scan for volume groups on the newly created mapper device:

 vgscan
 vg-activate-all true

The logical volume(s) can now be mounted in the usual way.

Before closing a LUKS device you must unmount any logical volumes on it and deactivate the volume groups by calling vg-activate false VG on each one. Then you can close the mapper device:

 vg-activate false /dev/VG
 luks-close /dev/mapper/luksdev

WINDOWS PATHS

If a path is prefixed with win: then you can use Windows-style drive letters and paths (with some limitations). The following commands are equivalent:

 file /WINDOWS/system32/config/system.LOG

 file win:\windows\system32\config\system.log

 file WIN:C:\Windows\SYSTEM32\CONFIG\SYSTEM.LOG

The parameter is rewritten "behind the scenes" by looking up the position where the drive is mounted, prepending that to the path, changing all backslash characters to forward slash, then resolving the result using "case-sensitive-path". For example if the E: drive was mounted on /e then the parameter might be rewritten like this:

 win:e:\foo\bar => /e/FOO/bar

This only works in argument positions that expect a path.

UPLOADING AND DOWNLOADING FILES

For commands such as upload, download, tar-in, tar-out and others which upload from or download to a local file, you can use the special filename - to mean "from stdin" or "to stdout". For example:

 upload - /foo

reads stdin and creates from that a file /foo in the disk image, and:

 tar-out /etc - | tar tf -

writes the tarball to stdout and then pipes that into the external "tar" command (see "PIPES").

When using - to read from stdin, the input is read up to the end of stdin. You can also use a special "heredoc"-like syntax to read up to some arbitrary end marker:

 upload -<<END /foo
 input line 1
 input line 2
 input line 3
 END

Any string of characters can be used instead of END. The end marker must appear on a line of its own, without any preceding or following characters (not even spaces).

Note that the -<< syntax only applies to parameters used to upload local files (so-called "FileIn" parameters in the generator).

EXIT ON ERROR BEHAVIOUR

By default, guestfish will ignore any errors when in interactive mode (ie. taking commands from a human over a tty), and will exit on the first error in non-interactive mode (scripts, commands given on the command line).

If you prefix a command with a - character, then that command will not cause guestfish to exit, even if that (one) command returns an error.

REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET

Guestfish can be remote-controlled over a socket. This is useful particularly in shell scripts where you want to make several different changes to a filesystem, but you don't want the overhead of starting up a guestfish process each time.

Start a guestfish server process using:

 eval "`guestfish --listen`"

and then send it commands by doing:

 guestfish --remote cmd [...]

To cause the server to exit, send it the exit command:

 guestfish --remote exit

Note that the server will normally exit if there is an error in a command. You can change this in the usual way. See section "EXIT ON ERROR BEHAVIOUR".

CONTROLLING MULTIPLE GUESTFISH PROCESSES

The eval statement sets the environment variable $GUESTFISH_PID, which is how the --remote option knows where to send the commands. You can have several guestfish listener processes running using:

 eval "`guestfish --listen`"
 pid1=$GUESTFISH_PID
 eval "`guestfish --listen`"
 pid2=$GUESTFISH_PID
 ...
 guestfish --remote=$pid1 cmd
 guestfish --remote=$pid2 cmd

REMOTE CONTROL AND CSH

When using csh-like shells (csh, tcsh etc) you have to add the --csh option:

 eval "`guestfish --listen --csh`"

REMOTE CONTROL DETAILS

Remote control happens over a Unix domain socket called /tmp/.guestfish-$UID/socket-$PID, where $UID is the effective user ID of the process, and $PID is the process ID of the server.

Guestfish client and server versions must match exactly.

Older versions of guestfish were vulnerable to CVE-2013-4419 (see "CVE-2013-4419" in guestfs(3)). This is fixed in the current version.

USING REMOTE CONTROL ROBUSTLY FROM SHELL SCRIPTS

From Bash, you can use the following code which creates a guestfish instance, correctly quotes the command line, handles failure to start, and cleans up guestfish when the script exits:

 #!/bin/bash -
 
 set -e
 
 guestfish[0]="guestfish"
 guestfish[1]="--listen"
 guestfish[2]="--ro"
 guestfish[3]="-a"
 guestfish[4]="disk.img"
 
 GUESTFISH_PID=
 eval $("${guestfish[@]}")
 if [ -z "$GUESTFISH_PID" ]; then
     echo "error: guestfish didn't start up, see error messages above"
     exit 1
 fi
 
 cleanup_guestfish ()
 {
     guestfish --remote -- exit >/dev/null 2>&1 ||:
 }
 trap cleanup_guestfish EXIT ERR
 
 guestfish --remote -- run
 
 # ...

REMOTE CONTROL DOES NOT WORK WITH -a ETC. OPTIONS

Options such as -a, --add, -N, --new etc don't interact properly with remote support. They are processed locally, and not sent through to the remote guestfish. In particular this won't do what you expect:

 guestfish --remote --add disk.img

Don't use these options. Use the equivalent commands instead, eg:

 guestfish --remote add-drive disk.img

or:

 guestfish --remote
 ><fs> add disk.img

REMOTE CONTROL RUN COMMAND HANGING

Using the run (or launch) command remotely in a command substitution context hangs, ie. don't do (note the backquotes):

 a=`guestfish --remote run`

Since the run command produces no output on stdout, this is not useful anyway. For further information see https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=592910.

PREPARED DISK IMAGES

Use the -N [filename=]type or --new [filename=]type parameter to select one of a set of preformatted disk images that guestfish can make for you to save typing. This is particularly useful for testing purposes. This option is used instead of the -a option, and like -a can appear multiple times (and can be mixed with -a).

The new disk is called test1.img for the first -N, test2.img for the second and so on. Existing files in the current directory are overwritten. You can use a different filename by specifying filename= before the type (see examples below).

The type briefly describes how the disk should be sized, partitioned, how filesystem(s) should be created, and how content should be added. Optionally the type can be followed by extra parameters, separated by : (colon) characters. For example, -N fs creates a default 100MB, sparsely-allocated disk, containing a single partition, with the partition formatted as ext2. -N fs:ext4:1G is the same, but for an ext4 filesystem on a 1GB disk instead.

Note that the prepared filesystem is not mounted. You would usually have to use the mount /dev/sda1 / command or add the -m /dev/sda1 option.

If any -N or --new options are given, the libguestfs appliance is automatically launched.

EXAMPLES

Create a 100MB disk with an ext4-formatted partition, called test1.img in the current directory:

 guestfish -N fs:ext4

Create a 32MB disk with a VFAT-formatted partition, and mount it:

 guestfish -N fs:vfat:32M -m /dev/sda1

Create a blank 200MB disk:

 guestfish -N disk:200M

Create a blank 200MB disk called blankdisk.img (instead of test1.img):

 guestfish -N blankdisk.img=disk:200M

-N disk - create a blank disk

guestfish -N [filename=]disk[:size]

Create a blank disk, size 100MB (by default).

The default size can be changed by supplying an optional parameter.

The optional parameters are:

 Name          Default value
 size          100M          the size of the disk image

-N part - create a partitioned disk

guestfish -N [filename=]part[:size[:partition]]

Create a disk with a single partition. By default the size of the disk is 100MB (the available space in the partition will be a tiny bit smaller) and the partition table will be MBR (old DOS-style).

These defaults can be changed by supplying optional parameters.

The optional parameters are:

 Name          Default value
 size          100M          the size of the disk image
 partition     mbr           partition table type

-N fs - create a filesystem

guestfish -N [filename=]fs[:filesystem[:size[:partition]]]

Create a disk with a single partition, with the partition containing an empty filesystem. This defaults to creating a 100MB disk (the available space in the filesystem will be a tiny bit smaller) with an MBR (old DOS-style) partition table and an ext2 filesystem.

These defaults can be changed by supplying optional parameters.

The optional parameters are:

 Name          Default value
 filesystem    ext2          the type of filesystem to use
 size          100M          the size of the disk image
 partition     mbr           partition table type

-N lv - create a disk with logical volume

guestfish -N [filename=]lv[:name[:size[:partition]]]

Create a disk with a single partition, set up the partition as an LVM2 physical volume, and place a volume group and logical volume on there. This defaults to creating a 100MB disk with the VG and LV called /dev/VG/LV. You can change the name of the VG and LV by supplying an alternate name as the first optional parameter.

Note this does not create a filesystem. Use 'lvfs' to do that.

The optional parameters are:

 Name          Default value
 name          /dev/VG/LV    the name of the VG and LV to use
 size          100M          the size of the disk image
 partition     mbr           partition table type

-N lvfs - create a disk with logical volume and filesystem

guestfish -N [filename=]lvfs[:name[:filesystem[:size[:partition]]]]

Create a disk with a single partition, set up the partition as an LVM2 physical volume, and place a volume group and logical volume on there. Then format the LV with a filesystem. This defaults to creating a 100MB disk with the VG and LV called /dev/VG/LV, with an ext2 filesystem.

The optional parameters are:

 Name          Default value
 name          /dev/VG/LV    the name of the VG and LV to use
 filesystem    ext2          the type of filesystem to use
 size          100M          the size of the disk image
 partition     mbr           partition table type

-N bootroot - create a boot and root filesystem

guestfish -N [filename=]bootroot[:bootfs[:rootfs[:size[:bootsize[:partition]]]]]

Create a disk with two partitions, for boot and root filesystem. Format the two filesystems independently. There are several optional parameters which control the exact layout and filesystem types.

The optional parameters are:

 Name          Default value
 bootfs        ext2          the type of filesystem to use for boot
 rootfs        ext2          the type of filesystem to use for root
 size          100M          the size of the disk image
 bootsize      32M           the size of the boot filesystem
 partition     mbr           partition table type

-N bootrootlv - create a boot and root filesystem using LVM

guestfish -N [filename=]bootrootlv[:name[:bootfs[:rootfs[:size[:bootsize[:partition]]]]]]

This is the same as bootroot but the root filesystem (only) is placed on a logical volume, named by default /dev/VG/LV. There are several optional parameters which control the exact layout.

The optional parameters are:

 Name          Default value
 name          /dev/VG/LV    the name of the VG and LV for root
 bootfs        ext2          the type of filesystem to use for boot
 rootfs        ext2          the type of filesystem to use for root
 size          100M          the size of the disk image
 bootsize      32M           the size of the boot filesystem
 partition     mbr           partition table type

ADDING REMOTE STORAGE

For API-level documentation on this topic, see "guestfs_add_drive_opts" in guestfs(3) and "REMOTE STORAGE" in guestfs(3).

On the command line, you can use the -a option to add network block devices using a URI-style format, for example:

 guestfish -a ssh://root@example.com/disk.img

URIs cannot be used with the "add" command. The equivalent command using the API directly is:

 ><fs> add /disk.img protocol:ssh server:tcp:example.com username:root

The possible -a URI formats are described below.

-a disk.img

-a file:///path/to/disk.img

Add the local disk image (or device) called disk.img.

-a ftp://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img

-a ftps://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img

-a http://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img

-a https://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img

-a tftp://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img

Add a disk located on a remote FTP, HTTP or TFTP server.

The equivalent API command would be:

 ><fs> add /disk.img protocol:(ftp|...) server:tcp:example.com

-a gluster://example.com[:port]/volname/image

Add a disk image located on GlusterFS storage.

The server is the one running glusterd, and may be localhost.

The equivalent API command would be:

 ><fs> add volname/image protocol:gluster server:tcp:example.com

-a iscsi://example.com[:port]/target-iqn-name[/lun]

Add a disk located on an iSCSI server.

The equivalent API command would be:

 ><fs> add target-iqn-name/lun protocol:iscsi server:tcp:example.com

-a nbd://example.com[:port]

-a nbd://example.com[:port]/exportname

-a nbd://?socket=/socket

-a nbd:///exportname?socket=/socket

Add a disk located on Network Block Device (nbd) storage.

The /exportname part of the URI specifies an NBD export name, but is usually left empty.

The optional ?socket parameter can be used to specify a Unix domain socket that we talk to the NBD server over. Note that you cannot mix server name (ie. TCP/IP) and socket path.

The equivalent API command would be (no export name):

 ><fs> add "" protocol:nbd server:[tcp:example.com|unix:/socket]

-a rbd:///pool/disk

-a rbd://example.com[:port]/pool/disk

Add a disk image located on a Ceph (RBD/librbd) storage volume.

Although libguestfs and Ceph supports multiple servers, only a single server can be specified when using this URI syntax.

The equivalent API command would be:

 ><fs> add pool/disk protocol:rbd server:tcp:example.com:port

-a sheepdog://[example.com[:port]]/volume/image

Add a disk image located on a Sheepdog volume.

The server name is optional. Although libguestfs and Sheepdog supports multiple servers, only at most one server can be specified when using this URI syntax.

The equivalent API command would be:

 ><fs> add volume protocol:sheepdog [server:tcp:example.com]

-a ssh://[user@]example.com[:port]/disk.img

Add a disk image located on a remote server, accessed using the Secure Shell (ssh) SFTP protocol. SFTP is supported out of the box by all major SSH servers.

The equivalent API command would be:

 ><fs> add /disk protocol:ssh server:tcp:example.com [username:user]

PROGRESS BARS

Some (not all) long-running commands send progress notification messages as they are running. Guestfish turns these messages into progress bars.

When a command that supports progress bars takes longer than two seconds to run, and if progress bars are enabled, then you will see one appearing below the command:

 ><fs> copy-size /large-file /another-file 2048M
 / 10% [#####-----------------------------------------] 00:30

The spinner on the left hand side moves round once for every progress notification received from the backend. This is a (reasonably) golden assurance that the command is "doing something" even if the progress bar is not moving, because the command is able to send the progress notifications. When the bar reaches 100% and the command finishes, the spinner disappears.

Progress bars are enabled by default when guestfish is used interactively. You can enable them even for non-interactive modes using --progress-bars, and you can disable them completely using --no-progress-bars.

PROMPT

You can change or add colours to the default prompt (><fs>) by setting the GUESTFISH_PS1 environment variable. A second string (GUESTFISH_OUTPUT) is printed after the command has been entered and before the output, allowing you to control the colour of the output. A third string (GUESTFISH_INIT) is printed before the welcome message, allowing you to control the colour of that message. A fourth string (GUESTFISH_RESTORE) is printed before guestfish exits.

A simple prompt can be set by setting GUESTFISH_PS1 to an alternate string:

 $ GUESTFISH_PS1='(type a command) '
 $ export GUESTFISH_PS1
 $ guestfish
 [...]
 (type a command) ▂

You can also use special escape sequences, as described in the table below:

\\

A literal backslash character.

\[
\]

(These should only be used in GUESTFISH_PS1.)

Place non-printing characters (eg. terminal control codes for colours) between \[...\]. What this does it to tell the readline(3) library that it should treat this subsequence as zero-width, so that command-line redisplay, editing etc works.

\a

A bell character.

\e

An ASCII ESC (escape) character.

\n

A newline.

\r

A carriage return.

\NNN

The ASCII character whose code is the octal value NNN.

\xNN

The ASCII character whose code is the hex value NN.

EXAMPLES OF PROMPTS

Note these these require a terminal that supports ANSI escape codes.

WINDOWS 8

Windows 8 "fast startup" can prevent guestfish from mounting NTFS partitions. See "WINDOWS HIBERNATION AND WINDOWS 8 FAST STARTUP" in guestfs(3).

GUESTFISH COMMANDS

The commands in this section are guestfish convenience commands, in other words, they are not part of the guestfs(3) API.

help

 help
 help cmd

Without any parameter, this provides general help.

With a cmd parameter, this displays detailed help for that command.

exit

quit

This exits guestfish. You can also use ^D key.

alloc

allocate

 alloc filename size

This creates an empty (zeroed) file of the given size, and then adds so it can be further examined.

For more advanced image creation, see "disk-create".

Size can be specified using standard suffixes, eg. 1M.

To create a sparse file, use "sparse" instead. To create a prepared disk image, see "PREPARED DISK IMAGES".

copy-in

 copy-in local [local ...] /remotedir

copy-in copies local files or directories recursively into the disk image, placing them in the directory called /remotedir (which must exist). This guestfish meta-command turns into a sequence of "tar-in" and other commands as necessary.

Multiple local files and directories can be specified, but the last parameter must always be a remote directory. Wildcards cannot be used.

copy-out

 copy-out remote [remote ...] localdir

copy-out copies remote files or directories recursively out of the disk image, placing them on the host disk in a local directory called localdir (which must exist). This guestfish meta-command turns into a sequence of "download", "tar-out" and other commands as necessary.

Multiple remote files and directories can be specified, but the last parameter must always be a local directory. To download to the current directory, use . as in:

 copy-out /home .

Wildcards cannot be used in the ordinary command, but you can use them with the help of "glob" like this:

 glob copy-out /home/* .

delete-event

 delete-event name

Delete the event handler which was previously registered as name. If multiple event handlers were registered with the same name, they are all deleted.

See also the guestfish commands event and list-events.

display

 display filename

Use display (a graphical display program) to display an image file. It downloads the file, and runs display on it.

To use an alternative program, set the GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE environment variable. For example to use the GNOME display program:

 export GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE=eog

See also display(1).

echo

 echo [params ...]

This echos the parameters to the terminal.

edit

vi

emacs

 edit filename

This is used to edit a file. It downloads the file, edits it locally using your editor, then uploads the result.

The editor is $EDITOR. However if you use the alternate commands vi or emacs you will get those corresponding editors.

event

 event name eventset "shell script ..."

Register a shell script fragment which is executed when an event is raised. See "guestfs_set_event_callback" in guestfs(3) for a discussion of the event API in libguestfs.

The name parameter is a name that you give to this event handler. It can be any string (even the empty string) and is simply there so you can delete the handler using the guestfish delete-event command.

The eventset parameter is a comma-separated list of one or more events, for example close or close,trace. The special value * means all events.

The third and final parameter is the shell script fragment (or any external command) that is executed when any of the events in the eventset occurs. It is executed using $SHELL -c, or if $SHELL is not set then /bin/sh -c.

The shell script fragment receives callback parameters as arguments $1, $2 etc. The actual event that was called is available in the environment variable $EVENT.

 event "" close "echo closed"
 event messages appliance,library,trace "echo $@"
 event "" progress "echo progress: $3/$4"
 event "" * "echo $EVENT $@"

See also the guestfish commands delete-event and list-events.

glob

 glob command args...

Expand wildcards in any paths in the args list, and run command repeatedly on each matching path.

See "WILDCARDS AND GLOBBING".

hexedit

 hexedit <filename|device>
 hexedit <filename|device> <max>
 hexedit <filename|device> <start> <max>

Use hexedit (a hex editor) to edit all or part of a binary file or block device.

This command works by downloading potentially the whole file or device, editing it locally, then uploading it. If the file or device is large, you have to specify which part you wish to edit by using max and/or start max parameters. start and max are specified in bytes, with the usual modifiers allowed such as 1M (1 megabyte).

For example to edit the first few sectors of a disk you might do:

 hexedit /dev/sda 1M

which would allow you to edit anywhere within the first megabyte of the disk.

To edit the superblock of an ext2 filesystem on /dev/sda1, do:

 hexedit /dev/sda1 0x400 0x400

(assuming the superblock is in the standard location).

This command requires the external hexedit(1) program. You can specify another program to use by setting the HEXEDITOR environment variable.

See also "hexdump".

lcd

 lcd directory

Change the local directory, ie. the current directory of guestfish itself.

Note that !cd won't do what you might expect.

list-events

 list-events

List the event handlers registered using the guestfish event command.

man

manual

  man

Opens the manual page for guestfish.

more

less

 more filename

 less filename

This is used to view a file.

The default viewer is $PAGER. However if you use the alternate command less you will get the less command specifically.

reopen

  reopen

Close and reopen the libguestfs handle. It is not necessary to use this normally, because the handle is closed properly when guestfish exits. However this is occasionally useful for testing.

setenv

  setenv VAR value

Set the environment variable VAR to the string value.

To print the value of an environment variable use a shell command such as:

 !echo $VAR

sparse

 sparse filename size

This creates an empty sparse file of the given size, and then adds so it can be further examined.

In all respects it works the same as the "alloc" command, except that the image file is allocated sparsely, which means that disk blocks are not assigned to the file until they are needed. Sparse disk files only use space when written to, but they are slower and there is a danger you could run out of real disk space during a write operation.

For more advanced image creation, see "disk-create".

Size can be specified using standard suffixes, eg. 1M.

See also the guestfish "scratch" command.

supported

 supported

This command returns a list of the optional groups known to the daemon, and indicates which ones are supported by this build of the libguestfs appliance.

See also "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3).

time

 time command args...

Run the command as usual, but print the elapsed time afterwards. This can be useful for benchmarking operations.

unsetenv

  unsetenv VAR

Remove VAR from the environment.

COMMANDS

acl-delete-def-file

 acl-delete-def-file dir

This function deletes the default POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to directory dir.

acl-get-file

 acl-get-file path acltype

This function returns the POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to path. The ACL is returned in "long text form" (see acl(5)).

The acltype parameter may be:

access

Return the ordinary (access) ACL for any file, directory or other filesystem object.

default

Return the default ACL. Normally this only makes sense if path is a directory.

acl-set-file

 acl-set-file path acltype acl

This function sets the POSIX Access Control List (ACL) attached to path.

The acltype parameter may be:

access

Set the ordinary (access) ACL for any file, directory or other filesystem object.

default

Set the default ACL. Normally this only makes sense if path is a directory.

The acl parameter is the new ACL in either "long text form" or "short text form" (see acl(5)). The new ACL completely replaces any previous ACL on the file. The ACL must contain the full Unix permissions (eg. u::rwx,g::rx,o::rx).

If you are specifying individual users or groups, then the mask field is also required (eg. m::rwx), followed by the u:ID:... and/or g:ID:... field(s). A full ACL string might therefore look like this:

 u::rwx,g::rwx,o::rwx,m::rwx,u:500:rwx,g:500:rwx
 \ Unix permissions / \mask/ \      ACL        /

You should use numeric UIDs and GIDs. To map usernames and groupnames to the correct numeric ID in the context of the guest, use the Augeas functions (see "aug-init").

add-cdrom

 add-cdrom filename

This function adds a virtual CD-ROM disk image to the guest.

The image is added as read-only drive, so this function is equivalent of "add-drive-ro".

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "add-drive-ro" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

add-domain

domain

 add-domain dom [libvirturi:..] [readonly:true|false] [iface:..] [live:true|false] [allowuuid:true|false] [readonlydisk:..] [cachemode:..] [discard:..] [copyonread:true|false]

This function adds the disk(s) attached to the named libvirt domain dom. It works by connecting to libvirt, requesting the domain and domain XML from libvirt, parsing it for disks, and calling "add-drive-opts" on each one.

The number of disks added is returned. This operation is atomic: if an error is returned, then no disks are added.

This function does some minimal checks to make sure the libvirt domain is not running (unless readonly is true). In a future version we will try to acquire the libvirt lock on each disk.

Disks must be accessible locally. This often means that adding disks from a remote libvirt connection (see http://libvirt.org/remote.html) will fail unless those disks are accessible via the same device path locally too.

The optional libvirturi parameter sets the libvirt URI (see http://libvirt.org/uri.html). If this is not set then we connect to the default libvirt URI (or one set through an environment variable, see the libvirt documentation for full details).

The optional live flag controls whether this call will try to connect to a running virtual machine guestfsd process if it sees a suitable <channel> element in the libvirt XML definition. The default (if the flag is omitted) is never to try. See "ATTACHING TO RUNNING DAEMONS" in guestfs(3) for more information.

If the allowuuid flag is true (default is false) then a UUID may be passed instead of the domain name. The dom string is treated as a UUID first and looked up, and if that lookup fails then we treat dom as a name as usual.

The optional readonlydisk parameter controls what we do for disks which are marked <readonly/> in the libvirt XML. Possible values are:

readonlydisk = "error"

If readonly is false:

The whole call is aborted with an error if any disk with the <readonly/> flag is found.

If readonly is true:

Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read-only.

readonlydisk = "read"

If readonly is false:

Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read-only. Other disks are added read/write.

If readonly is true:

Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read-only.

readonlydisk = "write" (default)

If readonly is false:

Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read/write.

If readonly is true:

Disks with the <readonly/> flag are added read-only.

readonlydisk = "ignore"

If readonly is true or false:

Disks with the <readonly/> flag are skipped.

The other optional parameters are passed directly through to "add-drive-opts".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

add-drive

add

add-drive-opts

 add-drive filename [readonly:true|false] [format:..] [iface:..] [name:..] [label:..] [protocol:..] [server:..] [username:..] [secret:..] [cachemode:..] [discard:..] [copyonread:true|false]

This function adds a disk image called filename to the handle. filename may be a regular host file or a host device.

When this function is called before "launch" (the usual case) then the first time you call this function, the disk appears in the API as /dev/sda, the second time as /dev/sdb, and so on.

In libguestfs ≥ 1.20 you can also call this function after launch (with some restrictions). This is called "hotplugging". When hotplugging, you must specify a label so that the new disk gets a predictable name. For more information see "HOTPLUGGING" in guestfs(3).

You don't necessarily need to be root when using libguestfs. However you obviously do need sufficient permissions to access the filename for whatever operations you want to perform (ie. read access if you just want to read the image or write access if you want to modify the image).

This call checks that filename exists.

filename may be the special string "/dev/null". See "NULL DISKS" in guestfs(3).

The optional arguments are:

readonly

If true then the image is treated as read-only. Writes are still allowed, but they are stored in a temporary snapshot overlay which is discarded at the end. The disk that you add is not modified.

format

This forces the image format. If you omit this (or use "add-drive" or "add-drive-ro") then the format is automatically detected. Possible formats include raw and qcow2.

Automatic detection of the format opens you up to a potential security hole when dealing with untrusted raw-format images. See CVE-2010-3851 and RHBZ#642934. Specifying the format closes this security hole.

iface

This rarely-used option lets you emulate the behaviour of the deprecated "add-drive-with-if" call (q.v.)

name

The name the drive had in the original guest, e.g. /dev/sdb. This is used as a hint to the guest inspection process if it is available.

label

Give the disk a label. The label should be a unique, short string using only ASCII characters [a-zA-Z]. As well as its usual name in the API (such as /dev/sda), the drive will also be named /dev/disk/guestfs/label.

See "DISK LABELS" in guestfs(3).

protocol

The optional protocol argument can be used to select an alternate source protocol.

See also: "REMOTE STORAGE" in guestfs(3).

protocol = "file"

filename is interpreted as a local file or device. This is the default if the optional protocol parameter is omitted.

protocol = "ftp"|"ftps"|"http"|"https"|"tftp"

Connect to a remote FTP, HTTP or TFTP server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below.

See also: "FTP, HTTP AND TFTP" in guestfs(3)

protocol = "gluster"

Connect to the GlusterFS server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below.

See also: "GLUSTER" in guestfs(3)

protocol = "iscsi"

Connect to the iSCSI server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below.

See also: "ISCSI" in guestfs(3).

protocol = "nbd"

Connect to the Network Block Device server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below.

See also: "NETWORK BLOCK DEVICE" in guestfs(3).

protocol = "rbd"

Connect to the Ceph (librbd/RBD) server. The server parameter must also be supplied - see below. The username parameter may be supplied. See below. The secret parameter may be supplied. See below.

See also: "CEPH" in guestfs(3).

protocol = "sheepdog"

Connect to the Sheepdog server. The server parameter may also be supplied - see below.

See also: "SHEEPDOG" in guestfs(3).

protocol = "ssh"

Connect to the Secure Shell (ssh) server.

The server parameter must be supplied. The username parameter may be supplied. See below.

See also: "SSH" in guestfs(3).

server

For protocols which require access to a remote server, this is a list of server(s).

 Protocol       Number of servers required
 --------       --------------------------
 file           List must be empty or param not used at all
 ftp|ftps|http|https|tftp  Exactly one
 gluster        Exactly one
 iscsi          Exactly one
 nbd            Exactly one
 rbd            Zero or more
 sheepdog       Zero or more
 ssh            Exactly one

Each list element is a string specifying a server. The string must be in one of the following formats:

 hostname
 hostname:port
 tcp:hostname
 tcp:hostname:port
 unix:/path/to/socket

If the port number is omitted, then the standard port number for the protocol is used (see /etc/services).

username

For the ftp, ftps, http, https, iscsi, rbd, ssh and tftp protocols, this specifies the remote username.

If not given, then the local username is used for ssh, and no authentication is attempted for ceph. But note this sometimes may give unexpected results, for example if using the libvirt backend and if the libvirt backend is configured to start the qemu appliance as a special user such as qemu.qemu. If in doubt, specify the remote username you want.

secret

For the rbd protocol only, this specifies the 'secret' to use when connecting to the remote device. It must be base64 encoded.

If not given, then a secret matching the given username will be looked up in the default keychain locations, or if no username is given, then no authentication will be used.

cachemode

Choose whether or not libguestfs will obey sync operations (safe but slow) or not (unsafe but fast). The possible values for this string are:

cachemode = "writeback"

This is the default.

Write operations in the API do not return until a write(2) call has completed in the host [but note this does not imply that anything gets written to disk].

Sync operations in the API, including implicit syncs caused by filesystem journalling, will not return until an fdatasync(2) call has completed in the host, indicating that data has been committed to disk.

cachemode = "unsafe"

In this mode, there are no guarantees. Libguestfs may cache anything and ignore sync requests. This is suitable only for scratch or temporary disks.

discard

Enable or disable discard (a.k.a. trim or unmap) support on this drive. If enabled, operations such as "fstrim" will be able to discard / make thin / punch holes in the underlying host file or device.

Possible discard settings are:

discard = "disable"

Disable discard support. This is the default.

discard = "enable"

Enable discard support. Fail if discard is not possible.

discard = "besteffort"

Enable discard support if possible, but don't fail if it is not supported.

Since not all backends and not all underlying systems support discard, this is a good choice if you want to use discard if possible, but don't mind if it doesn't work.

copyonread

The boolean parameter copyonread enables copy-on-read support. This only affects disk formats which have backing files, and causes reads to be stored in the overlay layer, speeding up multiple reads of the same area of disk.

The default is false.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

add-drive-ro

add-ro

 add-drive-ro filename

This function is the equivalent of calling "add-drive-opts" with the optional parameter GUESTFS_ADD_DRIVE_OPTS_READONLY set to 1, so the disk is added read-only, with the format being detected automatically.

add-drive-ro-with-if

 add-drive-ro-with-if filename iface

This is the same as "add-drive-ro" but it allows you to specify the QEMU interface emulation to use at run time.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "add-drive" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

add-drive-scratch

scratch

 add-drive-scratch size [name:..] [label:..]

This command adds a temporary scratch drive to the handle. The size parameter is the virtual size (in bytes). The scratch drive is blank initially (all reads return zeroes until you start writing to it). The drive is deleted when the handle is closed.

The optional arguments name and label are passed through to "add-drive".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

add-drive-with-if

 add-drive-with-if filename iface

This is the same as "add-drive" but it allows you to specify the QEMU interface emulation to use at run time.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "add-drive" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

aug-clear

 aug-clear augpath

Set the value associated with path to NULL. This is the same as the augtool(1) clear command.

aug-close

 aug-close

Close the current Augeas handle and free up any resources used by it. After calling this, you have to call "aug-init" again before you can use any other Augeas functions.

aug-defnode

 aug-defnode name expr val

Defines a variable name whose value is the result of evaluating expr.

If expr evaluates to an empty nodeset, a node is created, equivalent to calling "aug-set" expr, value. name will be the nodeset containing that single node.

On success this returns a pair containing the number of nodes in the nodeset, and a boolean flag if a node was created.

aug-defvar

 aug-defvar name expr

Defines an Augeas variable name whose value is the result of evaluating expr. If expr is NULL, then name is undefined.

On success this returns the number of nodes in expr, or 0 if expr evaluates to something which is not a nodeset.

aug-get

 aug-get augpath

Look up the value associated with path. If path matches exactly one node, the value is returned.

aug-init

 aug-init root flags

Create a new Augeas handle for editing configuration files. If there was any previous Augeas handle associated with this guestfs session, then it is closed.

You must call this before using any other "aug-*" commands.

root is the filesystem root. root must not be NULL, use / instead.

The flags are the same as the flags defined in <augeas.h>, the logical or of the following integers:

AUG_SAVE_BACKUP = 1

Keep the original file with a .augsave extension.

AUG_SAVE_NEWFILE = 2

Save changes into a file with extension .augnew, and do not overwrite original. Overrides AUG_SAVE_BACKUP.

AUG_TYPE_CHECK = 4

Typecheck lenses.

This option is only useful when debugging Augeas lenses. Use of this option may require additional memory for the libguestfs appliance. You may need to set the LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE environment variable or call "set-memsize".

AUG_NO_STDINC = 8

Do not use standard load path for modules.

AUG_SAVE_NOOP = 16

Make save a no-op, just record what would have been changed.

AUG_NO_LOAD = 32

Do not load the tree in "aug-init".

To close the handle, you can call "aug-close".

To find out more about Augeas, see http://augeas.net/.

aug-insert

 aug-insert augpath label true|false

Create a new sibling label for path, inserting it into the tree before or after path (depending on the boolean flag before).

path must match exactly one existing node in the tree, and label must be a label, ie. not contain /, * or end with a bracketed index [N].

aug-label

 aug-label augpath

The label (name of the last element) of the Augeas path expression augpath is returned. augpath must match exactly one node, else this function returns an error.

aug-load

 aug-load

Load files into the tree.

See aug_load in the Augeas documentation for the full gory details.

aug-ls

 aug-ls augpath

This is just a shortcut for listing "aug-match" path/* and sorting the resulting nodes into alphabetical order.

aug-match

 aug-match augpath

Returns a list of paths which match the path expression path. The returned paths are sufficiently qualified so that they match exactly one node in the current tree.

aug-mv

 aug-mv src dest

Move the node src to dest. src must match exactly one node. dest is overwritten if it exists.

aug-rm

 aug-rm augpath

Remove path and all of its children.

On success this returns the number of entries which were removed.

aug-save

 aug-save

This writes all pending changes to disk.

The flags which were passed to "aug-init" affect exactly how files are saved.

aug-set

 aug-set augpath val

Set the value associated with path to val.

In the Augeas API, it is possible to clear a node by setting the value to NULL. Due to an oversight in the libguestfs API you cannot do that with this call. Instead you must use the "aug-clear" call.

aug-setm

 aug-setm base sub val

Change multiple Augeas nodes in a single operation. base is an expression matching multiple nodes. sub is a path expression relative to base. All nodes matching base are found, and then for each node, sub is changed to val. sub may also be NULL in which case the base nodes are modified.

This returns the number of nodes modified.

available

 available 'groups ...'

This command is used to check the availability of some groups of functionality in the appliance, which not all builds of the libguestfs appliance will be able to provide.

The libguestfs groups, and the functions that those groups correspond to, are listed in "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3). You can also fetch this list at runtime by calling "available-all-groups".

The argument groups is a list of group names, eg: ["inotify", "augeas"] would check for the availability of the Linux inotify functions and Augeas (configuration file editing) functions.

The command returns no error if all requested groups are available.

It fails with an error if one or more of the requested groups is unavailable in the appliance.

If an unknown group name is included in the list of groups then an error is always returned.

Notes:

See also "filesystem-available".

available-all-groups

 available-all-groups

This command returns a list of all optional groups that this daemon knows about. Note this returns both supported and unsupported groups. To find out which ones the daemon can actually support you have to call "available" / "feature-available" on each member of the returned list.

See also "available", "feature-available" and "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3).

base64-in

 base64-in (base64file|-) filename

This command uploads base64-encoded data from base64file to filename.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

base64-out

 base64-out filename (base64file|-)

This command downloads the contents of filename, writing it out to local file base64file encoded as base64.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

blkdiscard

 blkdiscard device

This discards all blocks on the block device device, giving the free space back to the host.

This operation requires support in libguestfs, the host filesystem, qemu and the host kernel. If this support isn't present it may give an error or even appear to run but do nothing. You must also set the discard attribute on the underlying drive (see "add-drive-opts").

blkdiscardzeroes

 blkdiscardzeroes device

This call returns true if blocks on device that have been discarded by a call to "blkdiscard" are returned as blocks of zero bytes when read the next time.

If it returns false, then it may be that discarded blocks are read as stale or random data.

blkid

 blkid device

This command returns block device attributes for device. The following fields are usually present in the returned hash. Other fields may also be present.

UUID

The uuid of this device.

LABEL

The label of this device.

VERSION

The version of blkid command.

TYPE

The filesystem type or RAID of this device.

USAGE

The usage of this device, for example filesystem or raid.

blockdev-flushbufs

 blockdev-flushbufs device

This tells the kernel to flush internal buffers associated with device.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

blockdev-getbsz

 blockdev-getbsz device

This returns the block size of a device.

Note: this is different from both size in blocks and filesystem block size. Also this setting is not really used by anything. You should probably not use it for anything. Filesystems have their own idea about what block size to choose.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

blockdev-getro

 blockdev-getro device

Returns a boolean indicating if the block device is read-only (true if read-only, false if not).

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

blockdev-getsize64

 blockdev-getsize64 device

This returns the size of the device in bytes.

See also "blockdev-getsz".

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

blockdev-getss

 blockdev-getss device

This returns the size of sectors on a block device. Usually 512, but can be larger for modern devices.

(Note, this is not the size in sectors, use "blockdev-getsz" for that).

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

blockdev-getsz

 blockdev-getsz device

This returns the size of the device in units of 512-byte sectors (even if the sectorsize isn't 512 bytes ... weird).

See also "blockdev-getss" for the real sector size of the device, and "blockdev-getsize64" for the more useful size in bytes.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

blockdev-rereadpt

 blockdev-rereadpt device

Reread the partition table on device.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

blockdev-setbsz

 blockdev-setbsz device blocksize

This call does nothing and has never done anything because of a bug in blockdev. Do not use it.

If you need to set the filesystem block size, use the blocksize option of "mkfs".

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkfs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

blockdev-setra

 blockdev-setra device sectors

Set readahead (in 512-byte sectors) for the device.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

blockdev-setro

 blockdev-setro device

Sets the block device named device to read-only.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

blockdev-setrw

 blockdev-setrw device

Sets the block device named device to read-write.

This uses the blockdev(8) command.

btrfs-device-add

 btrfs-device-add 'devices ...' fs

Add the list of device(s) in devices to the btrfs filesystem mounted at fs. If devices is an empty list, this does nothing.

btrfs-device-delete

 btrfs-device-delete 'devices ...' fs

Remove the devices from the btrfs filesystem mounted at fs. If devices is an empty list, this does nothing.

btrfs-filesystem-balance

 btrfs-filesystem-balance fs

Balance the chunks in the btrfs filesystem mounted at fs across the underlying devices.

btrfs-filesystem-resize

 btrfs-filesystem-resize mountpoint [size:N]

This command resizes a btrfs filesystem.

Note that unlike other resize calls, the filesystem has to be mounted and the parameter is the mountpoint not the device (this is a requirement of btrfs itself).

The optional parameters are:

size

The new size (in bytes) of the filesystem. If omitted, the filesystem is resized to the maximum size.

See also btrfs(8).

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

btrfs-filesystem-sync

 btrfs-filesystem-sync fs

Force sync on the btrfs filesystem mounted at fs.

btrfs-fsck

 btrfs-fsck device [superblock:N] [repair:true|false]

Used to check a btrfs filesystem, device is the device file where the filesystem is stored.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

btrfs-qgroup-assign

 btrfs-qgroup-assign src dst path

Add qgroup src to parent qgroup dst. This command can group several qgroups into a parent qgroup to share common limit.

btrfs-qgroup-create

 btrfs-qgroup-create qgroupid subvolume

Create a quota group (qgroup) for subvolume at subvolume.

btrfs-qgroup-destroy

 btrfs-qgroup-destroy qgroupid subvolume

Destroy a quota group.

btrfs-qgroup-limit

 btrfs-qgroup-limit subvolume size

Limit the size of a subvolume which's path is subvolume. size can have suffix of G, M, or K.

btrfs-qgroup-remove

 btrfs-qgroup-remove src dst path

Remove qgroup src from the parent qgroup dst.

btrfs-qgroup-show

 btrfs-qgroup-show path

Show all subvolume quota groups in a btrfs filesystem, inclding their usages.

btrfs-quota-enable

 btrfs-quota-enable fs true|false

Enable or disable subvolume quota support for filesystem which contains path.

btrfs-quota-rescan

 btrfs-quota-rescan fs

Trash all qgroup numbers and scan the metadata again with the current config.

btrfs-set-seeding

 btrfs-set-seeding device true|false

Enable or disable the seeding feature of a device that contains a btrfs filesystem.

btrfs-subvolume-create

btrfs-subvolume-create-opts

 btrfs-subvolume-create dest [qgroupid:..]

Create a btrfs subvolume. The dest argument is the destination directory and the name of the subvolume, in the form /path/to/dest/name. The optional parameter qgroupid represents the qgroup which the newly created subvolume will be added to.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

btrfs-subvolume-delete

 btrfs-subvolume-delete subvolume

Delete the named btrfs subvolume or snapshot.

btrfs-subvolume-get-default

 btrfs-subvolume-get-default fs

Get the default subvolume or snapshot of a filesystem mounted at mountpoint.

btrfs-subvolume-list

 btrfs-subvolume-list fs

List the btrfs snapshots and subvolumes of the btrfs filesystem which is mounted at fs.

btrfs-subvolume-set-default

 btrfs-subvolume-set-default id fs

Set the subvolume of the btrfs filesystem fs which will be mounted by default. See "btrfs-subvolume-list" to get a list of subvolumes.

btrfs-subvolume-show

 btrfs-subvolume-show subvolume

Return detailed information of the subvolume.

btrfs-subvolume-snapshot

btrfs-subvolume-snapshot-opts

 btrfs-subvolume-snapshot source dest [ro:true|false] [qgroupid:..]

Create a snapshot of the btrfs subvolume source. The dest argument is the destination directory and the name of the snapshot, in the form /path/to/dest/name. By default the newly created snapshot is writable, if the value of optional parameter ro is true, then a readonly snapshot is created. The optional parameter qgroupid represents the qgroup which the newly created snapshot will be added to.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

c-pointer

 c-pointer

In non-C language bindings, this allows you to retrieve the underlying C pointer to the handle (ie. "h *"). The purpose of this is to allow other libraries to interwork with libguestfs.

canonical-device-name

 canonical-device-name device

This utility function is useful when displaying device names to the user. It takes a number of irregular device names and returns them in a consistent format:

/dev/hdX
/dev/vdX

These are returned as /dev/sdX. Note this works for device names and partition names. This is approximately the reverse of the algorithm described in "BLOCK DEVICE NAMING" in guestfs(3).

/dev/mapper/VG-LV
/dev/dm-N

Converted to /dev/VG/LV form using "lvm-canonical-lvm-name".

Other strings are returned unmodified.

cap-get-file

 cap-get-file path

This function returns the Linux capabilities attached to path. The capabilities set is returned in text form (see cap_to_text(3)).

If no capabilities are attached to a file, an empty string is returned.

cap-set-file

 cap-set-file path cap

This function sets the Linux capabilities attached to path. The capabilities set cap should be passed in text form (see cap_from_text(3)).

case-sensitive-path

 case-sensitive-path path

This can be used to resolve case insensitive paths on a filesystem which is case sensitive. The use case is to resolve paths which you have read from Windows configuration files or the Windows Registry, to the true path.

The command handles a peculiarity of the Linux ntfs-3g filesystem driver (and probably others), which is that although the underlying filesystem is case-insensitive, the driver exports the filesystem to Linux as case-sensitive.

One consequence of this is that special directories such as c:\windows may appear as /WINDOWS or /windows (or other things) depending on the precise details of how they were created. In Windows itself this would not be a problem.

Bug or feature? You decide: http://www.tuxera.com/community/ntfs-3g-faq/#posixfilenames1

"case-sensitive-path" attempts to resolve the true case of each element in the path. It will return a resolved path if either the full path or its parent directory exists. If the parent directory exists but the full path does not, the case of the parent directory will be correctly resolved, and the remainder appended unmodified. For example, if the file "/Windows/System32/netkvm.sys" exists:

"case-sensitive-path" ("/windows/system32/netkvm.sys")

"Windows/System32/netkvm.sys"

"case-sensitive-path" ("/windows/system32/NoSuchFile")

"Windows/System32/NoSuchFile"

"case-sensitive-path" ("/windows/system33/netkvm.sys")

ERROR

Note: Because of the above behaviour, "case-sensitive-path" cannot be used to check for the existence of a file.

Note: This function does not handle drive names, backslashes etc.

See also "realpath".

cat

 cat path

Return the contents of the file named path.

Because, in C, this function returns a char *, there is no way to differentiate between a \0 character in a file and end of string. To handle binary files, use the "read-file" or "download" functions.

checksum

 checksum csumtype path

This call computes the MD5, SHAx or CRC checksum of the file named path.

The type of checksum to compute is given by the csumtype parameter which must have one of the following values:

crc

Compute the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) specified by POSIX for the cksum command.

md5

Compute the MD5 hash (using the md5sum program).

sha1

Compute the SHA1 hash (using the sha1sum program).

sha224

Compute the SHA224 hash (using the sha224sum program).

sha256

Compute the SHA256 hash (using the sha256sum program).

sha384

Compute the SHA384 hash (using the sha384sum program).

sha512

Compute the SHA512 hash (using the sha512sum program).

The checksum is returned as a printable string.

To get the checksum for a device, use "checksum-device".

To get the checksums for many files, use "checksums-out".

checksum-device

 checksum-device csumtype device

This call computes the MD5, SHAx or CRC checksum of the contents of the device named device. For the types of checksums supported see the "checksum" command.

checksums-out

 checksums-out csumtype directory (sumsfile|-)

This command computes the checksums of all regular files in directory and then emits a list of those checksums to the local output file sumsfile.

This can be used for verifying the integrity of a virtual machine. However to be properly secure you should pay attention to the output of the checksum command (it uses the ones from GNU coreutils). In particular when the filename is not printable, coreutils uses a special backslash syntax. For more information, see the GNU coreutils info file.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

chmod

 chmod mode path

Change the mode (permissions) of path to mode. Only numeric modes are supported.

Note: When using this command from guestfish, mode by default would be decimal, unless you prefix it with 0 to get octal, ie. use 0700 not 700.

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

chown

 chown owner group path

Change the file owner to owner and group to group.

Only numeric uid and gid are supported. If you want to use names, you will need to locate and parse the password file yourself (Augeas support makes this relatively easy).

clear-backend-setting

 clear-backend-setting name

If there is a backend setting string matching "name" or beginning with "name=", then that string is removed from the backend settings.

This call returns the number of strings which were removed (which may be 0, 1 or greater than 1).

See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3), "BACKEND SETTINGS" in guestfs(3).

command

 command 'arguments ...'

This call runs a command from the guest filesystem. The filesystem must be mounted, and must contain a compatible operating system (ie. something Linux, with the same or compatible processor architecture).

The single parameter is an argv-style list of arguments. The first element is the name of the program to run. Subsequent elements are parameters. The list must be non-empty (ie. must contain a program name). Note that the command runs directly, and is not invoked via the shell (see "sh").

The return value is anything printed to stdout by the command.

If the command returns a non-zero exit status, then this function returns an error message. The error message string is the content of stderr from the command.

The $PATH environment variable will contain at least /usr/bin and /bin. If you require a program from another location, you should provide the full path in the first parameter.

Shared libraries and data files required by the program must be available on filesystems which are mounted in the correct places. It is the caller's responsibility to ensure all filesystems that are needed are mounted at the right locations.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

command-lines

 command-lines 'arguments ...'

This is the same as "command", but splits the result into a list of lines.

See also: "sh-lines"

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

compress-device-out

 compress-device-out ctype device (zdevice|-) [level:N]

This command compresses device and writes it out to the local file zdevice.

The ctype and optional level parameters have the same meaning as in "compress-out".

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

compress-out

 compress-out ctype file (zfile|-) [level:N]

This command compresses file and writes it out to the local file zfile.

The compression program used is controlled by the ctype parameter. Currently this includes: compress, gzip, bzip2, xz or lzop. Some compression types may not be supported by particular builds of libguestfs, in which case you will get an error containing the substring "not supported".

The optional level parameter controls compression level. The meaning and default for this parameter depends on the compression program being used.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

config

 config hvparam hvvalue

This can be used to add arbitrary hypervisor parameters of the form -param value. Actually it's not quite arbitrary - we prevent you from setting some parameters which would interfere with parameters that we use.

The first character of hvparam string must be a - (dash).

hvvalue can be NULL.

copy-attributes

 copy-attributes src dest [all:true|false] [mode:true|false] [xattributes:true|false] [ownership:true|false]

Copy the attributes of a path (which can be a file or a directory) to another path.

By default no attribute is copied, so make sure to specify any (or all to copy everything).

The optional arguments specify which attributes can be copied:

mode

Copy part of the file mode from source to destination. Only the UNIX permissions and the sticky/setuid/setgid bits can be copied.

xattributes

Copy the Linux extended attributes (xattrs) from source to destination. This flag does nothing if the linuxxattrs feature is not available (see "feature-available").

ownership

Copy the owner uid and the group gid of source to destination.

all

Copy all the attributes from source to destination. Enabling it enables all the other flags, if they are not specified already.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

copy-device-to-device

 copy-device-to-device src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false]

The four calls "copy-device-to-device", "copy-device-to-file", "copy-file-to-device", and "copy-file-to-file" let you copy from a source (device|file) to a destination (device|file).

Partial copies can be made since you can specify optionally the source offset, destination offset and size to copy. These values are all specified in bytes. If not given, the offsets both default to zero, and the size defaults to copying as much as possible until we hit the end of the source.

The source and destination may be the same object. However overlapping regions may not be copied correctly.

If the destination is a file, it is created if required. If the destination file is not large enough, it is extended.

If the sparse flag is true then the call avoids writing blocks that contain only zeroes, which can help in some situations where the backing disk is thin-provisioned. Note that unless the target is already zeroed, using this option will result in incorrect copying.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

copy-device-to-file

 copy-device-to-file src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false]

See "copy-device-to-device" for a general overview of this call.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

copy-file-to-device

 copy-file-to-device src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false]

See "copy-device-to-device" for a general overview of this call.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

copy-file-to-file

 copy-file-to-file src dest [srcoffset:N] [destoffset:N] [size:N] [sparse:true|false]

See "copy-device-to-device" for a general overview of this call.

This is not the function you want for copying files. This is for copying blocks within existing files. See "cp", "cp-a" and "mv" for general file copying and moving functions.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

copy-size

 copy-size src dest size

This command copies exactly size bytes from one source device or file src to another destination device or file dest.

Note this will fail if the source is too short or if the destination is not large enough.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "copy-device-to-device" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

cp

 cp src dest

This copies a file from src to dest where dest is either a destination filename or destination directory.

cp-a

 cp-a src dest

This copies a file or directory from src to dest recursively using the cp -a command.

cp-r

 cp-r src dest

This copies a file or directory from src to dest recursively using the cp -rP command.

Most users should use "cp-a" instead. This command is useful when you don't want to preserve permissions, because the target filesystem does not support it (primarily when writing to DOS FAT filesystems).

cpio-out

 cpio-out directory (cpiofile|-) [format:..]

This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file cpiofile.

The optional format parameter can be used to select the format. Only the following formats are currently permitted:

newc

New (SVR4) portable format. This format happens to be compatible with the cpio-like format used by the Linux kernel for initramfs.

This is the default format.

crc

New (SVR4) portable format with a checksum.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

dd

 dd src dest

This command copies from one source device or file src to another destination device or file dest. Normally you would use this to copy to or from a device or partition, for example to duplicate a filesystem.

If the destination is a device, it must be as large or larger than the source file or device, otherwise the copy will fail. This command cannot do partial copies (see "copy-device-to-device").

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "copy-device-to-device" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

device-index

 device-index device

This function takes a device name (eg. "/dev/sdb") and returns the index of the device in the list of devices.

Index numbers start from 0. The named device must exist, for example as a string returned from "list-devices".

See also "list-devices", "part-to-dev".

df

 df

This command runs the df command to report disk space used.

This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. Use "statvfs" from programs.

df-h

 df-h

This command runs the df -h command to report disk space used in human-readable format.

This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string. Use "statvfs" from programs.

disk-create

 disk-create filename format size [backingfile:..] [backingformat:..] [preallocation:..] [compat:..] [clustersize:N]

Create a blank disk image called filename (a host file) with format format (usually raw or qcow2). The size is size bytes.

If used with the optional backingfile parameter, then a snapshot is created on top of the backing file. In this case, size must be passed as -1. The size of the snapshot is the same as the size of the backing file, which is discovered automatically. You are encouraged to also pass backingformat to describe the format of backingfile.

If filename refers to a block device, then the device is formatted. The size is ignored since block devices have an intrinsic size.

The other optional parameters are:

preallocation

If format is raw, then this can be either sparse or full to create a sparse or fully allocated file respectively. The default is sparse.

If format is qcow2, then this can be either off or metadata. Preallocating metadata can be faster when doing lots of writes, but uses more space. The default is off.

compat

qcow2 only: Pass the string 1.1 to use the advanced qcow2 format supported by qemu ≥ 1.1.

clustersize

qcow2 only: Change the qcow2 cluster size. The default is 65536 (bytes) and this setting may be any power of two between 512 and 2097152.

Note that this call does not add the new disk to the handle. You may need to call "add-drive-opts" separately.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

disk-format

 disk-format filename

Detect and return the format of the disk image called filename. filename can also be a host device, etc. If the format of the image could not be detected, then "unknown" is returned.

Note that detecting the disk format can be insecure under some circumstances. See "CVE-2010-3851" in guestfs(3).

See also: "DISK IMAGE FORMATS" in guestfs(3)

disk-has-backing-file

 disk-has-backing-file filename

Detect and return whether the disk image filename has a backing file.

Note that detecting disk features can be insecure under some circumstances. See "CVE-2010-3851" in guestfs(3).

disk-virtual-size

 disk-virtual-size filename

Detect and return the virtual size in bytes of the disk image called filename.

Note that detecting disk features can be insecure under some circumstances. See "CVE-2010-3851" in guestfs(3).

dmesg

 dmesg

This returns the kernel messages (dmesg output) from the guest kernel. This is sometimes useful for extended debugging of problems.

Another way to get the same information is to enable verbose messages with "set-verbose" or by setting the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 before running the program.

download

 download remotefilename (filename|-)

Download file remotefilename and save it as filename on the local machine.

filename can also be a named pipe.

See also "upload", "cat".

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

download-offset

 download-offset remotefilename (filename|-) offset size

Download file remotefilename and save it as filename on the local machine.

remotefilename is read for size bytes starting at offset (this region must be within the file or device).

Note that there is no limit on the amount of data that can be downloaded with this call, unlike with "pread", and this call always reads the full amount unless an error occurs.

See also "download", "pread".

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

drop-caches

 drop-caches whattodrop

This instructs the guest kernel to drop its page cache, and/or dentries and inode caches. The parameter whattodrop tells the kernel what precisely to drop, see http://linux-mm.org/Drop_Caches

Setting whattodrop to 3 should drop everything.

This automatically calls sync(2) before the operation, so that the maximum guest memory is freed.

du

 du path

This command runs the du -s command to estimate file space usage for path.

path can be a file or a directory. If path is a directory then the estimate includes the contents of the directory and all subdirectories (recursively).

The result is the estimated size in kilobytes (ie. units of 1024 bytes).

e2fsck

 e2fsck device [correct:true|false] [forceall:true|false]

This runs the ext2/ext3 filesystem checker on device. It can take the following optional arguments:

correct

Automatically repair the file system. This option will cause e2fsck to automatically fix any filesystem problems that can be safely fixed without human intervention.

This option may not be specified at the same time as the forceall option.

forceall

Assume an answer of 'yes' to all questions; allows e2fsck to be used non-interactively.

This option may not be specified at the same time as the correct option.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

e2fsck-f

 e2fsck-f device

This runs e2fsck -p -f device, ie. runs the ext2/ext3 filesystem checker on device, noninteractively (-p), even if the filesystem appears to be clean (-f).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "e2fsck" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

echo-daemon

 echo-daemon 'words ...'

This command concatenates the list of words passed with single spaces between them and returns the resulting string.

You can use this command to test the connection through to the daemon.

See also "ping-daemon".

egrep

 egrep regex path

This calls the external egrep program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

egrepi

 egrepi regex path

This calls the external egrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

equal

 equal file1 file2

This compares the two files file1 and file2 and returns true if their content is exactly equal, or false otherwise.

The external cmp(1) program is used for the comparison.

exists

 exists path

This returns true if and only if there is a file, directory (or anything) with the given path name.

See also "is-file", "is-dir", "stat".

extlinux

 extlinux directory

Install the SYSLINUX bootloader on the device mounted at directory. Unlike "syslinux" which requires a FAT filesystem, this can be used on an ext2/3/4 or btrfs filesystem.

The directory parameter can be either a mountpoint, or a directory within the mountpoint.

You also have to mark the partition as "active" ("part-set-bootable") and a Master Boot Record must be installed (eg. using "pwrite-device") on the first sector of the whole disk. The SYSLINUX package comes with some suitable Master Boot Records. See the extlinux(1) man page for further information.

Additional configuration can be supplied to SYSLINUX by placing a file called extlinux.conf on the filesystem under directory. For further information about the contents of this file, see extlinux(1).

See also "syslinux".

fallocate

 fallocate path len

This command preallocates a file (containing zero bytes) named path of size len bytes. If the file exists already, it is overwritten.

Do not confuse this with the guestfish-specific alloc command which allocates a file in the host and attaches it as a device.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "fallocate64" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

fallocate64

 fallocate64 path len

This command preallocates a file (containing zero bytes) named path of size len bytes. If the file exists already, it is overwritten.

Note that this call allocates disk blocks for the file. To create a sparse file use "truncate-size" instead.

The deprecated call "fallocate" does the same, but owing to an oversight it only allowed 30 bit lengths to be specified, effectively limiting the maximum size of files created through that call to 1GB.

Do not confuse this with the guestfish-specific alloc and sparse commands which create a file in the host and attach it as a device.

feature-available

 feature-available 'groups ...'

This is the same as "available", but unlike that call it returns a simple true/false boolean result, instead of throwing an exception if a feature is not found. For other documentation see "available".

fgrep

 fgrep pattern path

This calls the external fgrep program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

fgrepi

 fgrepi pattern path

This calls the external fgrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

file

 file path

This call uses the standard file(1) command to determine the type or contents of the file.

This call will also transparently look inside various types of compressed file.

The exact command which runs is file -zb path. Note in particular that the filename is not prepended to the output (the -b option).

The output depends on the output of the underlying file(1) command and it can change in future in ways beyond our control. In other words, the output is not guaranteed by the ABI.

See also: file(1), "vfs-type", "lstat", "is-file", "is-blockdev" (etc), "is-zero".

file-architecture

 file-architecture filename

This detects the architecture of the binary filename, and returns it if known.

Currently defined architectures are:

"i386"

This string is returned for all 32 bit i386, i486, i586, i686 binaries irrespective of the precise processor requirements of the binary.

"x86_64"

64 bit x86-64.

"sparc"

32 bit SPARC.

"sparc64"

64 bit SPARC V9 and above.

"ia64"

Intel Itanium.

"ppc"

32 bit Power PC.

"ppc64"

64 bit Power PC.

"arm"

32 bit ARM.

"aarch64"

64 bit ARM.

Libguestfs may return other architecture strings in future.

The function works on at least the following types of files:

What it can't do currently:

filesize

 filesize file

This command returns the size of file in bytes.

To get other stats about a file, use "stat", "lstat", "is-dir", "is-file" etc. To get the size of block devices, use "blockdev-getsize64".

filesystem-available

 filesystem-available filesystem

Check whether libguestfs supports the named filesystem. The argument filesystem is a filesystem name, such as ext3.

You must call "launch" before using this command.

This is mainly useful as a negative test. If this returns true, it doesn't mean that a particular filesystem can be created or mounted, since filesystems can fail for other reasons such as it being a later version of the filesystem, or having incompatible features, or lacking the right mkfs.<fs> tool.

See also "available", "feature-available", "AVAILABILITY" in guestfs(3).

fill

 fill c len path

This command creates a new file called path. The initial content of the file is len octets of c, where c must be a number in the range [0..255].

To fill a file with zero bytes (sparsely), it is much more efficient to use "truncate-size". To create a file with a pattern of repeating bytes use "fill-pattern".

fill-dir

 fill-dir dir nr

This function, useful for testing filesystems, creates nr empty files in the directory dir with names 00000000 through nr-1 (ie. each file name is 8 digits long padded with zeroes).

fill-pattern

 fill-pattern pattern len path

This function is like "fill" except that it creates a new file of length len containing the repeating pattern of bytes in pattern. The pattern is truncated if necessary to ensure the length of the file is exactly len bytes.

find

 find directory

This command lists out all files and directories, recursively, starting at directory. It is essentially equivalent to running the shell command find directory -print but some post-processing happens on the output, described below.

This returns a list of strings without any prefix. Thus if the directory structure was:

 /tmp/a
 /tmp/b
 /tmp/c/d

then the returned list from "find" /tmp would be 4 elements:

 a
 b
 c
 c/d

If directory is not a directory, then this command returns an error.

The returned list is sorted.

find0

 find0 directory (files|-)

This command lists out all files and directories, recursively, starting at directory, placing the resulting list in the external file called files.

This command works the same way as "find" with the following exceptions:

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

findfs-label

 findfs-label label

This command searches the filesystems and returns the one which has the given label. An error is returned if no such filesystem can be found.

To find the label of a filesystem, use "vfs-label".

findfs-uuid

 findfs-uuid uuid

This command searches the filesystems and returns the one which has the given UUID. An error is returned if no such filesystem can be found.

To find the UUID of a filesystem, use "vfs-uuid".

fsck

 fsck fstype device

This runs the filesystem checker (fsck) on device which should have filesystem type fstype.

The returned integer is the status. See fsck(8) for the list of status codes from fsck.

Notes:

This command is entirely equivalent to running fsck -a -t fstype device.

fstrim

 fstrim mountpoint [offset:N] [length:N] [minimumfreeextent:N]

Trim the free space in the filesystem mounted on mountpoint. The filesystem must be mounted read-write.

The filesystem contents are not affected, but any free space in the filesystem is "trimmed", that is, given back to the host device, thus making disk images more sparse, allowing unused space in qcow2 files to be reused, etc.

This operation requires support in libguestfs, the mounted filesystem, the host filesystem, qemu and the host kernel. If this support isn't present it may give an error or even appear to run but do nothing.

See also "zero-free-space". That is a slightly different operation that turns free space in the filesystem into zeroes. It is valid to call "fstrim" either instead of, or after calling "zero-free-space".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

get-append

 get-append

Return the additional kernel options which are added to the libguestfs appliance kernel command line.

If NULL then no options are added.

get-attach-method

 get-attach-method

Return the current backend.

See "set-backend" and "BACKEND" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "get-backend" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

get-autosync

 get-autosync

Get the autosync flag.

get-backend

 get-backend

Return the current backend.

This handle property was previously called the "attach method".

See "set-backend" and "BACKEND" in guestfs(3).

get-backend-setting

 get-backend-setting name

Find a backend setting string which is either "name" or begins with "name=". If "name", this returns the string "1". If "name=", this returns the part after the equals sign (which may be an empty string).

If no such setting is found, this function throws an error. The errno (see "last-errno") will be ESRCH in this case.

See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3), "BACKEND SETTINGS" in guestfs(3).

get-backend-settings

 get-backend-settings

Return the current backend settings.

This call returns all backend settings strings. If you want to find a single backend setting, see "get-backend-setting".

See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3), "BACKEND SETTINGS" in guestfs(3).

get-cachedir

 get-cachedir

Get the directory used by the handle to store the appliance cache.

get-direct

 get-direct

Return the direct appliance mode flag.

get-e2attrs

 get-e2attrs file

This returns the file attributes associated with file.

The attributes are a set of bits associated with each inode which affect the behaviour of the file. The attributes are returned as a string of letters (described below). The string may be empty, indicating that no file attributes are set for this file.

These attributes are only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error.

The characters (file attributes) in the returned string are currently:

'A'

When the file is accessed, its atime is not modified.

'a'

The file is append-only.

'c'

The file is compressed on-disk.

'D'

(Directories only.) Changes to this directory are written synchronously to disk.

'd'

The file is not a candidate for backup (see dump(8)).

'E'

The file has compression errors.

'e'

The file is using extents.

'h'

The file is storing its blocks in units of the filesystem blocksize instead of sectors.

'I'

(Directories only.) The directory is using hashed trees.

'i'

The file is immutable. It cannot be modified, deleted or renamed. No link can be created to this file.

'j'

The file is data-journaled.

's'

When the file is deleted, all its blocks will be zeroed.

'S'

Changes to this file are written synchronously to disk.

'T'

(Directories only.) This is a hint to the block allocator that subdirectories contained in this directory should be spread across blocks. If not present, the block allocator will try to group subdirectories together.

't'

For a file, this disables tail-merging. (Not used by upstream implementations of ext2.)

'u'

When the file is deleted, its blocks will be saved, allowing the file to be undeleted.

'X'

The raw contents of the compressed file may be accessed.

'Z'

The compressed file is dirty.

More file attributes may be added to this list later. Not all file attributes may be set for all kinds of files. For detailed information, consult the chattr(1) man page.

See also "set-e2attrs".

Don't confuse these attributes with extended attributes (see "getxattr").

get-e2generation

 get-e2generation file

This returns the ext2 file generation of a file. The generation (which used to be called the "version") is a number associated with an inode. This is most commonly used by NFS servers.

The generation is only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error.

See "set-e2generation".

get-e2label

 get-e2label device

This returns the ext2/3/4 filesystem label of the filesystem on device.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "vfs-label" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

get-e2uuid

 get-e2uuid device

This returns the ext2/3/4 filesystem UUID of the filesystem on device.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "vfs-uuid" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

get-hv

 get-hv

Return the current hypervisor binary.

This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default qemu binary name.

get-libvirt-requested-credential-challenge

 get-libvirt-requested-credential-challenge index

Get the challenge (provided by libvirt) for the index'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a challenge, this returns the empty string "".

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

get-libvirt-requested-credential-defresult

 get-libvirt-requested-credential-defresult index

Get the default result (provided by libvirt) for the index'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a default result, this returns the empty string "".

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

get-libvirt-requested-credential-prompt

 get-libvirt-requested-credential-prompt index

Get the prompt (provided by libvirt) for the index'th requested credential. If libvirt did not provide a prompt, this returns the empty string "".

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

get-libvirt-requested-credentials

 get-libvirt-requested-credentials

This should only be called during the event callback for events of type GUESTFS_EVENT_LIBVIRT_AUTH.

Return the list of credentials requested by libvirt. Possible values are a subset of the strings provided when you called "set-libvirt-supported-credentials".

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

get-memsize

 get-memsize

This gets the memory size in megabytes allocated to the hypervisor.

If "set-memsize" was not called on this handle, and if LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE was not set, then this returns the compiled-in default value for memsize.

For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3).

get-network

 get-network

This returns the enable network flag.

get-path

 get-path

Return the current search path.

This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default path.

get-pgroup

 get-pgroup

This returns the process group flag.

get-pid

pid

 get-pid

Return the process ID of the hypervisor. If there is no hypervisor running, then this will return an error.

This is an internal call used for debugging and testing.

get-program

 get-program

Get the program name. See "set-program".

get-qemu

 get-qemu

Return the current hypervisor binary (usually qemu).

This is always non-NULL. If it wasn't set already, then this will return the default qemu binary name.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "get-hv" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

get-recovery-proc

 get-recovery-proc

Return the recovery process enabled flag.

get-selinux

 get-selinux

This returns the current setting of the selinux flag which is passed to the appliance at boot time. See "set-selinux".

For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3).

get-smp

 get-smp

This returns the number of virtual CPUs assigned to the appliance.

get-tmpdir

 get-tmpdir

Get the directory used by the handle to store temporary files.

get-trace

 get-trace

Return the command trace flag.

get-umask

 get-umask

Return the current umask. By default the umask is 022 unless it has been set by calling "umask".

get-verbose

 get-verbose

This returns the verbose messages flag.

getcon

 getcon

This gets the SELinux security context of the daemon.

See the documentation about SELINUX in guestfs(3), and "setcon"

getxattr

 getxattr path name

Get a single extended attribute from file path named name. This call follows symlinks. If you want to lookup an extended attribute for the symlink itself, use "lgetxattr".

Normally it is better to get all extended attributes from a file in one go by calling "getxattrs". However some Linux filesystem implementations are buggy and do not provide a way to list out attributes. For these filesystems (notably ntfs-3g) you have to know the names of the extended attributes you want in advance and call this function.

Extended attribute values are blobs of binary data. If there is no extended attribute named name, this returns an error.

See also: "getxattrs", "lgetxattr", attr(5).

getxattrs

 getxattrs path

This call lists the extended attributes of the file or directory path.

At the system call level, this is a combination of the listxattr(2) and getxattr(2) calls.

See also: "lgetxattrs", attr(5).

glob-expand

 glob-expand pattern

This command searches for all the pathnames matching pattern according to the wildcard expansion rules used by the shell.

If no paths match, then this returns an empty list (note: not an error).

It is just a wrapper around the C glob(3) function with flags GLOB_MARK|GLOB_BRACE. See that manual page for more details.

Notice that there is no equivalent command for expanding a device name (eg. /dev/sd*). Use "list-devices", "list-partitions" etc functions instead.

grep

grep-opts

 grep regex path [extended:true|false] [fixed:true|false] [insensitive:true|false] [compressed:true|false]

This calls the external grep program and returns the matching lines.

The optional flags are:

extended

Use extended regular expressions. This is the same as using the -E flag.

fixed

Match fixed (don't use regular expressions). This is the same as using the -F flag.

insensitive

Match case-insensitive. This is the same as using the -i flag.

compressed

Use zgrep instead of grep. This allows the input to be compress- or gzip-compressed.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

grepi

 grepi regex path

This calls the external grep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

grub-install

 grub-install root device

This command installs GRUB 1 (the Grand Unified Bootloader) on device, with the root directory being root.

Notes:

 head path

This command returns up to the first 10 lines of a file as a list of strings.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

head-n

 head-n nrlines path

If the parameter nrlines is a positive number, this returns the first nrlines lines of the file path.

If the parameter nrlines is a negative number, this returns lines from the file path, excluding the last nrlines lines.

If the parameter nrlines is zero, this returns an empty list.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

hexdump

 hexdump path

This runs hexdump -C on the given path. The result is the human-readable, canonical hex dump of the file.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

hivex-close

 hivex-close

Close the current hivex handle.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-commit

 hivex-commit filename

Commit (write) changes to the hive.

If the optional filename parameter is null, then the changes are written back to the same hive that was opened. If this is not null then they are written to the alternate filename given and the original hive is left untouched.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-node-add-child

 hivex-node-add-child parent name

Add a child node to parent named name.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-node-children

 hivex-node-children nodeh

Return the list of nodes which are subkeys of nodeh.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-node-delete-child

 hivex-node-delete-child nodeh

Delete nodeh, recursively if necessary.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-node-get-child

 hivex-node-get-child nodeh name

Return the child of nodeh with the name name, if it exists. This can return 0 meaning the name was not found.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-node-get-value

 hivex-node-get-value nodeh key

Return the value attached to nodeh which has the name key, if it exists. This can return 0 meaning the key was not found.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-node-name

 hivex-node-name nodeh

Return the name of nodeh.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-node-parent

 hivex-node-parent nodeh

Return the parent node of nodeh.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-node-set-value

 hivex-node-set-value nodeh key t val

Set or replace a single value under the node nodeh. The key is the name, t is the type, and val is the data.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-node-values

 hivex-node-values nodeh

Return the array of (key, datatype, data) tuples attached to nodeh.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-open

 hivex-open filename [verbose:true|false] [debug:true|false] [write:true|false]

Open the Windows Registry hive file named filename. If there was any previous hivex handle associated with this guestfs session, then it is closed.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

hivex-root

 hivex-root

Return the root node of the hive.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-value-key

 hivex-value-key valueh

Return the key (name) field of a (key, datatype, data) tuple.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-value-type

 hivex-value-type valueh

Return the data type field from a (key, datatype, data) tuple.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

hivex-value-utf8

 hivex-value-utf8 valueh

This calls "hivex-value-value" (which returns the data field from a hivex value tuple). It then assumes that the field is a UTF-16LE string and converts the result to UTF-8 (or if this is not possible, it returns an error).

This is useful for reading strings out of the Windows registry. However it is not foolproof because the registry is not strongly-typed and fields can contain arbitrary or unexpected data.

hivex-value-value

 hivex-value-value valueh

Return the data field of a (key, datatype, data) tuple.

This is a wrapper around the hivex(3) call of the same name.

See also: "hivex-value-utf8".

initrd-cat

 initrd-cat initrdpath filename

This command unpacks the file filename from the initrd file called initrdpath. The filename must be given without the initial / character.

For example, in guestfish you could use the following command to examine the boot script (usually called /init) contained in a Linux initrd or initramfs image:

 initrd-cat /boot/initrd-<version>.img init

See also "initrd-list".

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

initrd-list

 initrd-list path

This command lists out files contained in an initrd.

The files are listed without any initial / character. The files are listed in the order they appear (not necessarily alphabetical). Directory names are listed as separate items.

Old Linux kernels (2.4 and earlier) used a compressed ext2 filesystem as initrd. We only support the newer initramfs format (compressed cpio files).

inotify-add-watch

 inotify-add-watch path mask

Watch path for the events listed in mask.

Note that if path is a directory then events within that directory are watched, but this does not happen recursively (in subdirectories).

Note for non-C or non-Linux callers: the inotify events are defined by the Linux kernel ABI and are listed in /usr/include/sys/inotify.h.

inotify-close

 inotify-close

This closes the inotify handle which was previously opened by inotify_init. It removes all watches, throws away any pending events, and deallocates all resources.

inotify-files

 inotify-files

This function is a helpful wrapper around "inotify-read" which just returns a list of pathnames of objects that were touched. The returned pathnames are sorted and deduplicated.

inotify-init

 inotify-init maxevents

This command creates a new inotify handle. The inotify subsystem can be used to notify events which happen to objects in the guest filesystem.

maxevents is the maximum number of events which will be queued up between calls to "inotify-read" or "inotify-files". If this is passed as 0, then the kernel (or previously set) default is used. For Linux 2.6.29 the default was 16384 events. Beyond this limit, the kernel throws away events, but records the fact that it threw them away by setting a flag IN_Q_OVERFLOW in the returned structure list (see "inotify-read").

Before any events are generated, you have to add some watches to the internal watch list. See: "inotify-add-watch" and "inotify-rm-watch".

Queued up events should be read periodically by calling "inotify-read" (or "inotify-files" which is just a helpful wrapper around "inotify-read"). If you don't read the events out often enough then you risk the internal queue overflowing.

The handle should be closed after use by calling "inotify-close". This also removes any watches automatically.

See also inotify(7) for an overview of the inotify interface as exposed by the Linux kernel, which is roughly what we expose via libguestfs. Note that there is one global inotify handle per libguestfs instance.

inotify-read

 inotify-read

Return the complete queue of events that have happened since the previous read call.

If no events have happened, this returns an empty list.

Note: In order to make sure that all events have been read, you must call this function repeatedly until it returns an empty list. The reason is that the call will read events up to the maximum appliance-to-host message size and leave remaining events in the queue.

inotify-rm-watch

 inotify-rm-watch wd

Remove a previously defined inotify watch. See "inotify-add-watch".

inspect-get-arch

 inspect-get-arch root

This returns the architecture of the inspected operating system. The possible return values are listed under "file-architecture".

If the architecture could not be determined, then the string unknown is returned.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-distro

 inspect-get-distro root

This returns the distro (distribution) of the inspected operating system.

Currently defined distros are:

"archlinux"

Arch Linux.

"buildroot"

Buildroot-derived distro, but not one we specifically recognize.

"centos"

CentOS.

"cirros"

Cirros.

"debian"

Debian.

"fedora"

Fedora.

"freebsd"

FreeBSD.

"freedos"

FreeDOS.

"gentoo"

Gentoo.

"linuxmint"

Linux Mint.

"mageia"

Mageia.

"mandriva"

Mandriva.

"meego"

MeeGo.

"netbsd"

NetBSD.

"openbsd"

OpenBSD.

"opensuse"

OpenSUSE.

"oraclelinux"

Oracle Linux.

"pardus"

Pardus.

"redhat-based"

Some Red Hat-derived distro.

"rhel"

Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

"scientificlinux"

Scientific Linux.

"slackware"

Slackware.

"sles"

SuSE Linux Enterprise Server or Desktop.

"suse-based"

Some openSuSE-derived distro.

"ttylinux"

ttylinux.

"ubuntu"

Ubuntu.

"unknown"

The distro could not be determined.

"windows"

Windows does not have distributions. This string is returned if the OS type is Windows.

Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-drive-mappings

 inspect-get-drive-mappings root

This call is useful for Windows which uses a primitive system of assigning drive letters (like "C:") to partitions. This inspection API examines the Windows Registry to find out how disks/partitions are mapped to drive letters, and returns a hash table as in the example below:

 C      =>     /dev/vda2
 E      =>     /dev/vdb1
 F      =>     /dev/vdc1

Note that keys are drive letters. For Windows, the key is case insensitive and just contains the drive letter, without the customary colon separator character.

In future we may support other operating systems that also used drive letters, but the keys for those might not be case insensitive and might be longer than 1 character. For example in OS-9, hard drives were named h0, h1 etc.

For Windows guests, currently only hard drive mappings are returned. Removable disks (eg. DVD-ROMs) are ignored.

For guests that do not use drive mappings, or if the drive mappings could not be determined, this returns an empty hash table.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get-mountpoints", "inspect-get-filesystems".

inspect-get-filesystems

 inspect-get-filesystems root

This returns a list of all the filesystems that we think are associated with this operating system. This includes the root filesystem, other ordinary filesystems, and non-mounted devices like swap partitions.

In the case of a multi-boot virtual machine, it is possible for a filesystem to be shared between operating systems.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get-mountpoints".

inspect-get-format

 inspect-get-format root

This returns the format of the inspected operating system. You can use it to detect install images, live CDs and similar.

Currently defined formats are:

"installed"

This is an installed operating system.

"installer"

The disk image being inspected is not an installed operating system, but a bootable install disk, live CD, or similar.

"unknown"

The format of this disk image is not known.

Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-hostname

 inspect-get-hostname root

This function returns the hostname of the operating system as found by inspection of the guest's configuration files.

If the hostname could not be determined, then the string unknown is returned.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-icon

 inspect-get-icon root [favicon:true|false] [highquality:true|false]

This function returns an icon corresponding to the inspected operating system. The icon is returned as a buffer containing a PNG image (re-encoded to PNG if necessary).

If it was not possible to get an icon this function returns a zero-length (non-NULL) buffer. Callers must check for this case.

Libguestfs will start by looking for a file called /etc/favicon.png or C:\etc\favicon.png and if it has the correct format, the contents of this file will be returned. You can disable favicons by passing the optional favicon boolean as false (default is true).

If finding the favicon fails, then we look in other places in the guest for a suitable icon.

If the optional highquality boolean is true then only high quality icons are returned, which means only icons of high resolution with an alpha channel. The default (false) is to return any icon we can, even if it is of substandard quality.

Notes:

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

inspect-get-major-version

 inspect-get-major-version root

This returns the major version number of the inspected operating system.

Windows uses a consistent versioning scheme which is not reflected in the popular public names used by the operating system. Notably the operating system known as "Windows 7" is really version 6.1 (ie. major = 6, minor = 1). You can find out the real versions corresponding to releases of Windows by consulting Wikipedia or MSDN.

If the version could not be determined, then 0 is returned.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-minor-version

 inspect-get-minor-version root

This returns the minor version number of the inspected operating system.

If the version could not be determined, then 0 is returned.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get-major-version".

inspect-get-mountpoints

 inspect-get-mountpoints root

This returns a hash of where we think the filesystems associated with this operating system should be mounted. Callers should note that this is at best an educated guess made by reading configuration files such as /etc/fstab. In particular note that this may return filesystems which are non-existent or not mountable and callers should be prepared to handle or ignore failures if they try to mount them.

Each element in the returned hashtable has a key which is the path of the mountpoint (eg. /boot) and a value which is the filesystem that would be mounted there (eg. /dev/sda1).

Non-mounted devices such as swap devices are not returned in this list.

For operating systems like Windows which still use drive letters, this call will only return an entry for the first drive "mounted on" /. For information about the mapping of drive letters to partitions, see "inspect-get-drive-mappings".

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get-filesystems".

inspect-get-package-format

 inspect-get-package-format root

This function and "inspect-get-package-management" return the package format and package management tool used by the inspected operating system. For example for Fedora these functions would return rpm (package format), and yum or dnf (package management).

This returns the string unknown if we could not determine the package format or if the operating system does not have a real packaging system (eg. Windows).

Possible strings include: rpm, deb, ebuild, pisi, pacman, pkgsrc. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-package-management

 inspect-get-package-management root

"inspect-get-package-format" and this function return the package format and package management tool used by the inspected operating system. For example for Fedora these functions would return rpm (package format), and yum or dnf (package management).

This returns the string unknown if we could not determine the package management tool or if the operating system does not have a real packaging system (eg. Windows).

Possible strings include: yum, dnf, up2date, apt (for all Debian derivatives), portage, pisi, pacman, urpmi, zypper. Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-product-name

 inspect-get-product-name root

This returns the product name of the inspected operating system. The product name is generally some freeform string which can be displayed to the user, but should not be parsed by programs.

If the product name could not be determined, then the string unknown is returned.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-product-variant

 inspect-get-product-variant root

This returns the product variant of the inspected operating system.

For Windows guests, this returns the contents of the Registry key HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion InstallationType which is usually a string such as Client or Server (other values are possible). This can be used to distinguish consumer and enterprise versions of Windows that have the same version number (for example, Windows 7 and Windows 2008 Server are both version 6.1, but the former is Client and the latter is Server).

For enterprise Linux guests, in future we intend this to return the product variant such as Desktop, Server and so on. But this is not implemented at present.

If the product variant could not be determined, then the string unknown is returned.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details. See also "inspect-get-product-name", "inspect-get-major-version".

inspect-get-roots

 inspect-get-roots

This function is a convenient way to get the list of root devices, as returned from a previous call to "inspect-os", but without redoing the whole inspection process.

This returns an empty list if either no root devices were found or the caller has not called "inspect-os".

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-type

 inspect-get-type root

This returns the type of the inspected operating system. Currently defined types are:

"linux"

Any Linux-based operating system.

"windows"

Any Microsoft Windows operating system.

"freebsd"

FreeBSD.

"netbsd"

NetBSD.

"openbsd"

OpenBSD.

"hurd"

GNU/Hurd.

"dos"

MS-DOS, FreeDOS and others.

"minix"

MINIX.

"unknown"

The operating system type could not be determined.

Future versions of libguestfs may return other strings here. The caller should be prepared to handle any string.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-windows-current-control-set

 inspect-get-windows-current-control-set root

This returns the Windows CurrentControlSet of the inspected guest. The CurrentControlSet is a registry key name such as ControlSet001.

This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the Registry could be examined by inspection. If this is not the case then an error is returned.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-get-windows-systemroot

 inspect-get-windows-systemroot root

This returns the Windows systemroot of the inspected guest. The systemroot is a directory path such as /WINDOWS.

This call assumes that the guest is Windows and that the systemroot could be determined by inspection. If this is not the case then an error is returned.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-is-live

 inspect-is-live root

If "inspect-get-format" returns installer (this is an install disk), then this returns true if a live image was detected on the disk.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-is-multipart

 inspect-is-multipart root

If "inspect-get-format" returns installer (this is an install disk), then this returns true if the disk is part of a set.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-is-netinst

 inspect-is-netinst root

If "inspect-get-format" returns installer (this is an install disk), then this returns true if the disk is a network installer, ie. not a self-contained install CD but one which is likely to require network access to complete the install.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-list-applications

 inspect-list-applications root

Return the list of applications installed in the operating system.

Note: This call works differently from other parts of the inspection API. You have to call "inspect-os", then "inspect-get-mountpoints", then mount up the disks, before calling this. Listing applications is a significantly more difficult operation which requires access to the full filesystem. Also note that unlike the other "inspect-get-*" calls which are just returning data cached in the libguestfs handle, this call actually reads parts of the mounted filesystems during the call.

This returns an empty list if the inspection code was not able to determine the list of applications.

The application structure contains the following fields:

app_name

The name of the application. For Red Hat-derived and Debian-derived Linux guests, this is the package name.

app_display_name

The display name of the application, sometimes localized to the install language of the guest operating system.

If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Callers needing to display something can use app_name instead.

app_epoch

For package managers which use epochs, this contains the epoch of the package (an integer). If unavailable, this is returned as 0.

app_version

The version string of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_release

The release string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_install_path

The installation path of the application (on operating systems such as Windows which use installation paths). This path is in the format used by the guest operating system, it is not a libguestfs path.

If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_trans_path

The install path translated into a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_publisher

The name of the publisher of the application, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_url

The URL (eg. upstream URL) of the application. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_source_package

For packaging systems which support this, the name of the source package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_summary

A short (usually one line) description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app_description

A longer description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "inspect-list-applications2" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

inspect-list-applications2

 inspect-list-applications2 root

Return the list of applications installed in the operating system.

Note: This call works differently from other parts of the inspection API. You have to call "inspect-os", then "inspect-get-mountpoints", then mount up the disks, before calling this. Listing applications is a significantly more difficult operation which requires access to the full filesystem. Also note that unlike the other "inspect-get-*" calls which are just returning data cached in the libguestfs handle, this call actually reads parts of the mounted filesystems during the call.

This returns an empty list if the inspection code was not able to determine the list of applications.

The application structure contains the following fields:

app2_name

The name of the application. For Red Hat-derived and Debian-derived Linux guests, this is the package name.

app2_display_name

The display name of the application, sometimes localized to the install language of the guest operating system.

If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "". Callers needing to display something can use app2_name instead.

app2_epoch

For package managers which use epochs, this contains the epoch of the package (an integer). If unavailable, this is returned as 0.

app2_version

The version string of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_release

The release string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_arch

The architecture string of the application or package, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_install_path

The installation path of the application (on operating systems such as Windows which use installation paths). This path is in the format used by the guest operating system, it is not a libguestfs path.

If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_trans_path

The install path translated into a libguestfs path. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_publisher

The name of the publisher of the application, for package managers that use this. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_url

The URL (eg. upstream URL) of the application. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_source_package

For packaging systems which support this, the name of the source package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_summary

A short (usually one line) description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

app2_description

A longer description of the application or package. If unavailable this is returned as an empty string "".

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

inspect-os

 inspect-os

This function uses other libguestfs functions and certain heuristics to inspect the disk(s) (usually disks belonging to a virtual machine), looking for operating systems.

The list returned is empty if no operating systems were found.

If one operating system was found, then this returns a list with a single element, which is the name of the root filesystem of this operating system. It is also possible for this function to return a list containing more than one element, indicating a dual-boot or multi-boot virtual machine, with each element being the root filesystem of one of the operating systems.

You can pass the root string(s) returned to other "inspect-get-*" functions in order to query further information about each operating system, such as the name and version.

This function uses other libguestfs features such as "mount-ro" and "umount-all" in order to mount and unmount filesystems and look at the contents. This should be called with no disks currently mounted. The function may also use Augeas, so any existing Augeas handle will be closed.

This function cannot decrypt encrypted disks. The caller must do that first (supplying the necessary keys) if the disk is encrypted.

Please read "INSPECTION" in guestfs(3) for more details.

See also "list-filesystems".

is-blockdev

is-blockdev-opts

 is-blockdev path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a block device with the given path name.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a block device also causes the function to return true.

See also "stat".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

is-chardev

is-chardev-opts

 is-chardev path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a character device with the given path name.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a chardev also causes the function to return true.

See also "stat".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

is-config

 is-config

This returns true iff this handle is being configured (in the CONFIG state).

For more information on states, see guestfs(3).

is-dir

is-dir-opts

 is-dir path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a directory with the given path name. Note that it returns false for other objects like files.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a directory also causes the function to return true.

See also "stat".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

is-fifo

is-fifo-opts

 is-fifo path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a FIFO (named pipe) with the given path name.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a FIFO also causes the function to return true.

See also "stat".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

is-file

is-file-opts

 is-file path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a regular file with the given path name. Note that it returns false for other objects like directories.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a file also causes the function to return true.

See also "stat".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

is-lv

 is-lv device

This command tests whether device is a logical volume, and returns true iff this is the case.

is-socket

is-socket-opts

 is-socket path [followsymlinks:true|false]

This returns true if and only if there is a Unix domain socket with the given path name.

If the optional flag followsymlinks is true, then a symlink (or chain of symlinks) that ends with a socket also causes the function to return true.

See also "stat".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

 is-symlink path

This returns true if and only if there is a symbolic link with the given path name.

See also "stat".

is-whole-device

 is-whole-device device

This returns true if and only if device refers to a whole block device. That is, not a partition or a logical device.

is-zero

 is-zero path

This returns true iff the file exists and the file is empty or it contains all zero bytes.

is-zero-device

 is-zero-device device

This returns true iff the device exists and contains all zero bytes.

Note that for large devices this can take a long time to run.

isoinfo

 isoinfo isofile

This is the same as "isoinfo-device" except that it works for an ISO file located inside some other mounted filesystem. Note that in the common case where you have added an ISO file as a libguestfs device, you would not call this. Instead you would call "isoinfo-device".

isoinfo-device

 isoinfo-device device

device is an ISO device. This returns a struct of information read from the primary volume descriptor (the ISO equivalent of the superblock) of the device.

Usually it is more efficient to use the isoinfo(1) command with the -d option on the host to analyze ISO files, instead of going through libguestfs.

For information on the primary volume descriptor fields, see http://wiki.osdev.org/ISO_9660#The_Primary_Volume_Descriptor

journal-close

 journal-close

Close the journal handle.

journal-get

 journal-get

Read the current journal entry. This returns all the fields in the journal as a set of (attrname, attrval) pairs. The attrname is the field name (a string).

The attrval is the field value (a binary blob, often but not always a string). Please note that attrval is a byte array, not a \0-terminated C string.

The length of data may be truncated to the data threshold (see: "journal-set-data-threshold", "journal-get-data-threshold").

If you set the data threshold to unlimited (0) then this call can read a journal entry of any size, ie. it is not limited by the libguestfs protocol.

journal-get-data-threshold

 journal-get-data-threshold

Get the current data threshold for reading journal entries. This is a hint to the journal that it may truncate data fields to this size when reading them (note also that it may not truncate them). If this returns 0, then the threshold is unlimited.

See also "journal-set-data-threshold".

journal-get-realtime-usec

 journal-get-realtime-usec

Get the realtime (wallclock) timestamp of the current journal entry.

journal-next

 journal-next

Move to the next journal entry. You have to call this at least once after opening the handle before you are able to read data.

The returned boolean tells you if there are any more journal records to read. true means you can read the next record (eg. using "journal-get-data"), and false means you have reached the end of the journal.

journal-open

 journal-open directory

Open the systemd journal located in directory. Any previously opened journal handle is closed.

The contents of the journal can be read using "journal-next" and "journal-get".

After you have finished using the journal, you should close the handle by calling "journal-close".

journal-set-data-threshold

 journal-set-data-threshold threshold

Set the data threshold for reading journal entries. This is a hint to the journal that it may truncate data fields to this size when reading them (note also that it may not truncate them). If you set this to 0, then the threshold is unlimited.

See also "journal-get-data-threshold".

journal-skip

 journal-skip skip

Skip forwards (skip ≥ 0) or backwards (skip < 0) in the journal.

The number of entries actually skipped is returned (note rskip ≥ 0). If this is not the same as the absolute value of the skip parameter (|skip|) you passed in then it means you have reached the end or the start of the journal.

kill-subprocess

 kill-subprocess

This kills the hypervisor.

Do not call this. See: "shutdown" instead.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "shutdown" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

launch

run

 launch

You should call this after configuring the handle (eg. adding drives) but before performing any actions.

Do not call "launch" twice on the same handle. Although it will not give an error (for historical reasons), the precise behaviour when you do this is not well defined. Handles are very cheap to create, so create a new one for each launch.

lchown

 lchown owner group path

Change the file owner to owner and group to group. This is like "chown" but if path is a symlink then the link itself is changed, not the target.

Only numeric uid and gid are supported. If you want to use names, you will need to locate and parse the password file yourself (Augeas support makes this relatively easy).

ldmtool-create-all

 ldmtool-create-all

This function scans all block devices looking for Windows dynamic disk volumes and partitions, and creates devices for any that were found.

Call "list-ldm-volumes" and "list-ldm-partitions" to return all devices.

Note that you don't normally need to call this explicitly, since it is done automatically at "launch" time. However you might want to call this function if you have hotplugged disks or have just created a Windows dynamic disk.

ldmtool-diskgroup-disks

 ldmtool-diskgroup-disks diskgroup

Return the disks in a Windows dynamic disk group. The diskgroup parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by "ldmtool-scan".

ldmtool-diskgroup-name

 ldmtool-diskgroup-name diskgroup

Return the name of a Windows dynamic disk group. The diskgroup parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by "ldmtool-scan".

ldmtool-diskgroup-volumes

 ldmtool-diskgroup-volumes diskgroup

Return the volumes in a Windows dynamic disk group. The diskgroup parameter should be the GUID of a disk group, one element from the list returned by "ldmtool-scan".

ldmtool-remove-all

 ldmtool-remove-all

This is essentially the opposite of "ldmtool-create-all". It removes the device mapper mappings for all Windows dynamic disk volumes

ldmtool-scan

 ldmtool-scan

This function scans for Windows dynamic disks. It returns a list of identifiers (GUIDs) for all disk groups that were found. These identifiers can be passed to other "ldmtool-*" functions.

This function scans all block devices. To scan a subset of block devices, call "ldmtool-scan-devices" instead.

ldmtool-scan-devices

 ldmtool-scan-devices 'devices ...'

This function scans for Windows dynamic disks. It returns a list of identifiers (GUIDs) for all disk groups that were found. These identifiers can be passed to other "ldmtool-*" functions.

The parameter devices is a list of block devices which are scanned. If this list is empty, all block devices are scanned.

ldmtool-volume-hint

 ldmtool-volume-hint diskgroup volume

Return the hint field of the volume named volume in the disk group with GUID diskgroup. This may not be defined, in which case the empty string is returned. The hint field is often, though not always, the name of a Windows drive, eg. E:.

ldmtool-volume-partitions

 ldmtool-volume-partitions diskgroup volume

Return the list of partitions in the volume named volume in the disk group with GUID diskgroup.

ldmtool-volume-type

 ldmtool-volume-type diskgroup volume

Return the type of the volume named volume in the disk group with GUID diskgroup.

Possible volume types that can be returned here include: simple, spanned, striped, mirrored, raid5. Other types may also be returned.

lgetxattr

 lgetxattr path name

Get a single extended attribute from file path named name. If path is a symlink, then this call returns an extended attribute from the symlink.

Normally it is better to get all extended attributes from a file in one go by calling "getxattrs". However some Linux filesystem implementations are buggy and do not provide a way to list out attributes. For these filesystems (notably ntfs-3g) you have to know the names of the extended attributes you want in advance and call this function.

Extended attribute values are blobs of binary data. If there is no extended attribute named name, this returns an error.

See also: "lgetxattrs", "getxattr", attr(5).

lgetxattrs

 lgetxattrs path

This is the same as "getxattrs", but if path is a symbolic link, then it returns the extended attributes of the link itself.

list-9p

 list-9p

List all 9p filesystems attached to the guest. A list of mount tags is returned.

list-devices

 list-devices

List all the block devices.

The full block device names are returned, eg. /dev/sda.

See also "list-filesystems".

list-disk-labels

 list-disk-labels

If you add drives using the optional label parameter of "add-drive-opts", you can use this call to map between disk labels, and raw block device and partition names (like /dev/sda and /dev/sda1).

This returns a hashtable, where keys are the disk labels (without the /dev/disk/guestfs prefix), and the values are the full raw block device and partition names (eg. /dev/sda and /dev/sda1).

list-dm-devices

 list-dm-devices

List all device mapper devices.

The returned list contains /dev/mapper/* devices, eg. ones created by a previous call to "luks-open".

Device mapper devices which correspond to logical volumes are not returned in this list. Call "lvs" if you want to list logical volumes.

list-filesystems

 list-filesystems

This inspection command looks for filesystems on partitions, block devices and logical volumes, returning a list of mountables containing filesystems and their type.

The return value is a hash, where the keys are the devices containing filesystems, and the values are the filesystem types. For example:

 "/dev/sda1" => "ntfs"
 "/dev/sda2" => "ext2"
 "/dev/vg_guest/lv_root" => "ext4"
 "/dev/vg_guest/lv_swap" => "swap"

The key is not necessarily a block device. It may also be an opaque 'mountable' string which can be passed to "mount".

The value can have the special value "unknown", meaning the content of the device is undetermined or empty. "swap" means a Linux swap partition.

This command runs other libguestfs commands, which might include "mount" and "umount", and therefore you should use this soon after launch and only when nothing is mounted.

Not all of the filesystems returned will be mountable. In particular, swap partitions are returned in the list. Also this command does not check that each filesystem found is valid and mountable, and some filesystems might be mountable but require special options. Filesystems may not all belong to a single logical operating system (use "inspect-os" to look for OSes).

list-ldm-partitions

 list-ldm-partitions

This function returns all Windows dynamic disk partitions that were found at launch time. It returns a list of device names.

list-ldm-volumes

 list-ldm-volumes

This function returns all Windows dynamic disk volumes that were found at launch time. It returns a list of device names.

list-md-devices

 list-md-devices

List all Linux md devices.

list-partitions

 list-partitions

List all the partitions detected on all block devices.

The full partition device names are returned, eg. /dev/sda1

This does not return logical volumes. For that you will need to call "lvs".

See also "list-filesystems".

ll

 ll directory

List the files in directory (relative to the root directory, there is no cwd) in the format of 'ls -la'.

This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string.

llz

 llz directory

List the files in directory in the format of 'ls -laZ'.

This command is mostly useful for interactive sessions. It is not intended that you try to parse the output string.

ln

 ln target linkname

This command creates a hard link using the ln command.

ln-f

 ln-f target linkname

This command creates a hard link using the ln -f command. The -f option removes the link (linkname) if it exists already.

ln-s

 ln-s target linkname

This command creates a symbolic link using the ln -s command.

ln-sf

 ln-sf target linkname

This command creates a symbolic link using the ln -sf command, The -f option removes the link (linkname) if it exists already.

lremovexattr

 lremovexattr xattr path

This is the same as "removexattr", but if path is a symbolic link, then it removes an extended attribute of the link itself.

ls

 ls directory

List the files in directory (relative to the root directory, there is no cwd). The '.' and '..' entries are not returned, but hidden files are shown.

ls0

 ls0 dir (filenames|-)

This specialized command is used to get a listing of the filenames in the directory dir. The list of filenames is written to the local file filenames (on the host).

In the output file, the filenames are separated by \0 characters.

. and .. are not returned. The filenames are not sorted.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

lsetxattr

 lsetxattr xattr val vallen path

This is the same as "setxattr", but if path is a symbolic link, then it sets an extended attribute of the link itself.

lstat

 lstat path

Returns file information for the given path.

This is the same as "stat" except that if path is a symbolic link, then the link is stat-ed, not the file it refers to.

This is the same as the lstat(2) system call.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "lstatns" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

lstatlist

 lstatlist path 'names ...'

This call allows you to perform the "lstat" operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory path. names is the list of files from this directory.

On return you get a list of stat structs, with a one-to-one correspondence to the names list. If any name did not exist or could not be lstat'd, then the st_ino field of that structure is set to -1.

This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also "lxattrlist" for a similarly efficient call for getting extended attributes.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "lstatnslist" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

lstatns

 lstatns path

Returns file information for the given path.

This is the same as "statns" except that if path is a symbolic link, then the link is stat-ed, not the file it refers to.

This is the same as the lstat(2) system call.

lstatnslist

 lstatnslist path 'names ...'

This call allows you to perform the "lstatns" operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory path. names is the list of files from this directory.

On return you get a list of stat structs, with a one-to-one correspondence to the names list. If any name did not exist or could not be lstat'd, then the st_ino field of that structure is set to -1.

This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also "lxattrlist" for a similarly efficient call for getting extended attributes.

luks-add-key

 luks-add-key device keyslot

This command adds a new key on LUKS device device. key is any existing key, and is used to access the device. newkey is the new key to add. keyslot is the key slot that will be replaced.

Note that if keyslot already contains a key, then this command will fail. You have to use "luks-kill-slot" first to remove that key.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

luks-close

 luks-close device

This closes a LUKS device that was created earlier by "luks-open" or "luks-open-ro". The device parameter must be the name of the LUKS mapping device (ie. /dev/mapper/mapname) and not the name of the underlying block device.

luks-format

 luks-format device keyslot

This command erases existing data on device and formats the device as a LUKS encrypted device. key is the initial key, which is added to key slot slot. (LUKS supports 8 key slots, numbered 0-7).

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

luks-format-cipher

 luks-format-cipher device keyslot cipher

This command is the same as "luks-format" but it also allows you to set the cipher used.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

luks-kill-slot

 luks-kill-slot device keyslot

This command deletes the key in key slot keyslot from the encrypted LUKS device device. key must be one of the other keys.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

luks-open

 luks-open device mapname

This command opens a block device which has been encrypted according to the Linux Unified Key Setup (LUKS) standard.

device is the encrypted block device or partition.

The caller must supply one of the keys associated with the LUKS block device, in the key parameter.

This creates a new block device called /dev/mapper/mapname. Reads and writes to this block device are decrypted from and encrypted to the underlying device respectively.

If this block device contains LVM volume groups, then calling "vgscan" followed by "vg-activate-all" will make them visible.

Use "list-dm-devices" to list all device mapper devices.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

luks-open-ro

 luks-open-ro device mapname

This is the same as "luks-open" except that a read-only mapping is created.

This command has one or more key or passphrase parameters. Guestfish will prompt for these separately.

lvcreate

 lvcreate logvol volgroup mbytes

This creates an LVM logical volume called logvol on the volume group volgroup, with size megabytes.

lvcreate-free

 lvcreate-free logvol volgroup percent

Create an LVM logical volume called /dev/volgroup/logvol, using approximately percent % of the free space remaining in the volume group. Most usefully, when percent is 100 this will create the largest possible LV.

lvm-canonical-lv-name

 lvm-canonical-lv-name lvname

This converts alternative naming schemes for LVs that you might find to the canonical name. For example, /dev/mapper/VG-LV is converted to /dev/VG/LV.

This command returns an error if the lvname parameter does not refer to a logical volume.

See also "is-lv", "canonical-device-name".

lvm-clear-filter

 lvm-clear-filter

This undoes the effect of "lvm-set-filter". LVM will be able to see every block device.

This command also clears the LVM cache and performs a volume group scan.

lvm-remove-all

 lvm-remove-all

This command removes all LVM logical volumes, volume groups and physical volumes.

lvm-set-filter

 lvm-set-filter 'devices ...'

This sets the LVM device filter so that LVM will only be able to "see" the block devices in the list devices, and will ignore all other attached block devices.

Where disk image(s) contain duplicate PVs or VGs, this command is useful to get LVM to ignore the duplicates, otherwise LVM can get confused. Note also there are two types of duplication possible: either cloned PVs/VGs which have identical UUIDs; or VGs that are not cloned but just happen to have the same name. In normal operation you cannot create this situation, but you can do it outside LVM, eg. by cloning disk images or by bit twiddling inside the LVM metadata.

This command also clears the LVM cache and performs a volume group scan.

You can filter whole block devices or individual partitions.

You cannot use this if any VG is currently in use (eg. contains a mounted filesystem), even if you are not filtering out that VG.

lvremove

 lvremove device

Remove an LVM logical volume device, where device is the path to the LV, such as /dev/VG/LV.

You can also remove all LVs in a volume group by specifying the VG name, /dev/VG.

lvrename

 lvrename logvol newlogvol

Rename a logical volume logvol with the new name newlogvol.

lvresize

 lvresize device mbytes

This resizes (expands or shrinks) an existing LVM logical volume to mbytes. When reducing, data in the reduced part is lost.

lvresize-free

 lvresize-free lv percent

This expands an existing logical volume lv so that it fills pc% of the remaining free space in the volume group. Commonly you would call this with pc = 100 which expands the logical volume as much as possible, using all remaining free space in the volume group.

lvs

 lvs

List all the logical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the lvs(8) command.

This returns a list of the logical volume device names (eg. /dev/VolGroup00/LogVol00).

See also "lvs-full", "list-filesystems".

lvs-full

 lvs-full

List all the logical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the lvs(8) command. The "full" version includes all fields.

lvuuid

 lvuuid device

This command returns the UUID of the LVM LV device.

lxattrlist

 lxattrlist path 'names ...'

This call allows you to get the extended attributes of multiple files, where all files are in the directory path. names is the list of files from this directory.

On return you get a flat list of xattr structs which must be interpreted sequentially. The first xattr struct always has a zero-length attrname. attrval in this struct is zero-length to indicate there was an error doing lgetxattr for this file, or is a C string which is a decimal number (the number of following attributes for this file, which could be "0"). Then after the first xattr struct are the zero or more attributes for the first named file. This repeats for the second and subsequent files.

This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips. See also "lstatlist" for a similarly efficient call for getting standard stats.

max-disks

 max-disks

Return the maximum number of disks that may be added to a handle (eg. by "add-drive-opts" and similar calls).

This function was added in libguestfs 1.19.7. In previous versions of libguestfs the limit was 25.

See "MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DISKS" in guestfs(3) for additional information on this topic.

md-create

 md-create name 'devices ...' [missingbitmap:N] [nrdevices:N] [spare:N] [chunk:N] [level:..]

Create a Linux md (RAID) device named name on the devices in the list devices.

The optional parameters are:

missingbitmap

A bitmap of missing devices. If a bit is set it means that a missing device is added to the array. The least significant bit corresponds to the first device in the array.

As examples:

If devices = ["/dev/sda"] and missingbitmap = 0x1 then the resulting array would be [<missing>, "/dev/sda"].

If devices = ["/dev/sda"] and missingbitmap = 0x2 then the resulting array would be ["/dev/sda", <missing>].

This defaults to 0 (no missing devices).

The length of devices + the number of bits set in missingbitmap must equal nrdevices + spare.

nrdevices

The number of active RAID devices.

If not set, this defaults to the length of devices plus the number of bits set in missingbitmap.

spare

The number of spare devices.

If not set, this defaults to 0.

chunk

The chunk size in bytes.

level

The RAID level, which can be one of: linear, raid0, 0, stripe, raid1, 1, mirror, raid4, 4, raid5, 5, raid6, 6, raid10, 10. Some of these are synonymous, and more levels may be added in future.

If not set, this defaults to raid1.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

md-detail

 md-detail md

This command exposes the output of 'mdadm -DY <md>'. The following fields are usually present in the returned hash. Other fields may also be present.

level

The raid level of the MD device.

devices

The number of underlying devices in the MD device.

metadata

The metadata version used.

uuid

The UUID of the MD device.

name

The name of the MD device.

md-stat

 md-stat md

This call returns a list of the underlying devices which make up the single software RAID array device md.

To get a list of software RAID devices, call "list-md-devices".

Each structure returned corresponds to one device along with additional status information:

mdstat_device

The name of the underlying device.

mdstat_index

The index of this device within the array.

mdstat_flags

Flags associated with this device. This is a string containing (in no specific order) zero or more of the following flags:

W

write-mostly

F

device is faulty

S

device is a RAID spare

R

replacement

md-stop

 md-stop md

This command deactivates the MD array named md. The device is stopped, but it is not destroyed or zeroed.

mkdir

 mkdir path

Create a directory named path.

mkdir-mode

 mkdir-mode path mode

This command creates a directory, setting the initial permissions of the directory to mode.

For common Linux filesystems, the actual mode which is set will be mode & ~umask & 01777. Non-native-Linux filesystems may interpret the mode in other ways.

See also "mkdir", "umask"

mkdir-p

 mkdir-p path

Create a directory named path, creating any parent directories as necessary. This is like the mkdir -p shell command.

mkdtemp

 mkdtemp tmpl

This command creates a temporary directory. The tmpl parameter should be a full pathname for the temporary directory name with the final six characters being "XXXXXX".

For example: "/tmp/myprogXXXXXX" or "/Temp/myprogXXXXXX", the second one being suitable for Windows filesystems.

The name of the temporary directory that was created is returned.

The temporary directory is created with mode 0700 and is owned by root.

The caller is responsible for deleting the temporary directory and its contents after use.

See also: mkdtemp(3)

mke2fs

 mke2fs device [blockscount:N] [blocksize:N] [fragsize:N] [blockspergroup:N] [numberofgroups:N] [bytesperinode:N] [inodesize:N] [journalsize:N] [numberofinodes:N] [stridesize:N] [stripewidth:N] [maxonlineresize:N] [reservedblockspercentage:N] [mmpupdateinterval:N] [journaldevice:..] [label:..] [lastmounteddir:..] [creatoros:..] [fstype:..] [usagetype:..] [uuid:..] [forcecreate:true|false] [writesbandgrouponly:true|false] [lazyitableinit:true|false] [lazyjournalinit:true|false] [testfs:true|false] [discard:true|false] [quotatype:true|false] [extent:true|false] [filetype:true|false] [flexbg:true|false] [hasjournal:true|false] [journaldev:true|false] [largefile:true|false] [quota:true|false] [resizeinode:true|false] [sparsesuper:true|false] [uninitbg:true|false]

mke2fs is used to create an ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem on device.

The optional blockscount is the size of the filesystem in blocks. If omitted it defaults to the size of device. Note if the filesystem is too small to contain a journal, mke2fs will silently create an ext2 filesystem instead.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

mke2fs-J

 mke2fs-J fstype blocksize device journal

This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on device with an external journal on journal. It is equivalent to the command:

 mke2fs -t fstype -b blocksize -J device=<journal> <device>

See also "mke2journal".

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

mke2fs-JL

 mke2fs-JL fstype blocksize device label

This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on device with an external journal on the journal labeled label.

See also "mke2journal-L".

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

mke2fs-JU

 mke2fs-JU fstype blocksize device uuid

This creates an ext2/3/4 filesystem on device with an external journal on the journal with UUID uuid.

See also "mke2journal-U".

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

mke2journal

 mke2journal blocksize device

This creates an ext2 external journal on device. It is equivalent to the command:

 mke2fs -O journal_dev -b blocksize device

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

mke2journal-L

 mke2journal-L blocksize label device

This creates an ext2 external journal on device with label label.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

mke2journal-U

 mke2journal-U blocksize uuid device

This creates an ext2 external journal on device with UUID uuid.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mke2fs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

mkfifo

 mkfifo mode path

This call creates a FIFO (named pipe) called path with mode mode. It is just a convenient wrapper around "mknod".

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

mkfs

mkfs-opts

 mkfs fstype device [blocksize:N] [features:..] [inode:N] [sectorsize:N]

This function creates a filesystem on device. The filesystem type is fstype, for example ext3.

The optional arguments are:

blocksize

The filesystem block size. Supported block sizes depend on the filesystem type, but typically they are 1024, 2048 or 4096 for Linux ext2/3 filesystems.

For VFAT and NTFS the blocksize parameter is treated as the requested cluster size.

For UFS block sizes, please see mkfs.ufs(8).

features

This passes the -O parameter to the external mkfs program.

For certain filesystem types, this allows extra filesystem features to be selected. See mke2fs(8) and mkfs.ufs(8) for more details.

You cannot use this optional parameter with the gfs or gfs2 filesystem type.

inode

This passes the -I parameter to the external mke2fs(8) program which sets the inode size (only for ext2/3/4 filesystems at present).

sectorsize

This passes the -S parameter to external mkfs.ufs(8) program, which sets sector size for ufs filesystem.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

mkfs-b

 mkfs-b fstype blocksize device

This call is similar to "mkfs", but it allows you to control the block size of the resulting filesystem. Supported block sizes depend on the filesystem type, but typically they are 1024, 2048 or 4096 only.

For VFAT and NTFS the blocksize parameter is treated as the requested cluster size.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkfs" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

mkfs-btrfs

 mkfs-btrfs 'devices ...' [allocstart:N] [bytecount:N] [datatype:..] [leafsize:N] [label:..] [metadata:..] [nodesize:N] [sectorsize:N]

Create a btrfs filesystem, allowing all configurables to be set. For more information on the optional arguments, see mkfs.btrfs(8).

Since btrfs filesystems can span multiple devices, this takes a non-empty list of devices.

To create general filesystems, use "mkfs".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

mklost-and-found

 mklost-and-found mountpoint

Make the lost+found directory, normally in the root directory of an ext2/3/4 filesystem. mountpoint is the directory under which we try to create the lost+found directory.

mkmountpoint

 mkmountpoint exemptpath

"mkmountpoint" and "rmmountpoint" are specialized calls that can be used to create extra mountpoints before mounting the first filesystem.

These calls are only necessary in some very limited circumstances, mainly the case where you want to mount a mix of unrelated and/or read-only filesystems together.

For example, live CDs often contain a "Russian doll" nest of filesystems, an ISO outer layer, with a squashfs image inside, with an ext2/3 image inside that. You can unpack this as follows in guestfish:

 add-ro Fedora-11-i686-Live.iso
 run
 mkmountpoint /cd
 mkmountpoint /sqsh
 mkmountpoint /ext3fs
 mount /dev/sda /cd
 mount-loop /cd/LiveOS/squashfs.img /sqsh
 mount-loop /sqsh/LiveOS/ext3fs.img /ext3fs

The inner filesystem is now unpacked under the /ext3fs mountpoint.

"mkmountpoint" is not compatible with "umount-all". You may get unexpected errors if you try to mix these calls. It is safest to manually unmount filesystems and remove mountpoints after use.

"umount-all" unmounts filesystems by sorting the paths longest first, so for this to work for manual mountpoints, you must ensure that the innermost mountpoints have the longest pathnames, as in the example code above.

For more details see https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=599503

Autosync [see "set-autosync", this is set by default on handles] can cause "umount-all" to be called when the handle is closed which can also trigger these issues.

mknod

 mknod mode devmajor devminor path

This call creates block or character special devices, or named pipes (FIFOs).

The mode parameter should be the mode, using the standard constants. devmajor and devminor are the device major and minor numbers, only used when creating block and character special devices.

Note that, just like mknod(2), the mode must be bitwise OR'd with S_IFBLK, S_IFCHR, S_IFIFO or S_IFSOCK (otherwise this call just creates a regular file). These constants are available in the standard Linux header files, or you can use "mknod-b", "mknod-c" or "mkfifo" which are wrappers around this command which bitwise OR in the appropriate constant for you.

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

mknod-b

 mknod-b mode devmajor devminor path

This call creates a block device node called path with mode mode and device major/minor devmajor and devminor. It is just a convenient wrapper around "mknod".

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

mknod-c

 mknod-c mode devmajor devminor path

This call creates a char device node called path with mode mode and device major/minor devmajor and devminor. It is just a convenient wrapper around "mknod".

The mode actually set is affected by the umask.

mkswap

mkswap-opts

 mkswap device [label:..] [uuid:..]

Create a Linux swap partition on device.

The option arguments label and uuid allow you to set the label and/or UUID of the new swap partition.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

mkswap-L

 mkswap-L label device

Create a swap partition on device with label label.

Note that you cannot attach a swap label to a block device (eg. /dev/sda), just to a partition. This appears to be a limitation of the kernel or swap tools.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkswap" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

mkswap-U

 mkswap-U uuid device

Create a swap partition on device with UUID uuid.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "mkswap" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

mkswap-file

 mkswap-file path

Create a swap file.

This command just writes a swap file signature to an existing file. To create the file itself, use something like "fallocate".

mktemp

 mktemp tmpl [suffix:..]

This command creates a temporary file. The tmpl parameter should be a full pathname for the temporary directory name with the final six characters being "XXXXXX".

For example: "/tmp/myprogXXXXXX" or "/Temp/myprogXXXXXX", the second one being suitable for Windows filesystems.

The name of the temporary file that was created is returned.

The temporary file is created with mode 0600 and is owned by root.

The caller is responsible for deleting the temporary file after use.

If the optional suffix parameter is given, then the suffix (eg. .txt) is appended to the temporary name.

See also: "mkdtemp".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

modprobe

 modprobe modulename

This loads a kernel module in the appliance.

mount

 mount mountable mountpoint

Mount a guest disk at a position in the filesystem. Block devices are named /dev/sda, /dev/sdb and so on, as they were added to the guest. If those block devices contain partitions, they will have the usual names (eg. /dev/sda1). Also LVM /dev/VG/LV-style names can be used, or 'mountable' strings returned by "list-filesystems" or "inspect-get-mountpoints".

The rules are the same as for mount(2): A filesystem must first be mounted on / before others can be mounted. Other filesystems can only be mounted on directories which already exist.

The mounted filesystem is writable, if we have sufficient permissions on the underlying device.

Before libguestfs 1.13.16, this call implicitly added the options sync and noatime. The sync option greatly slowed writes and caused many problems for users. If your program might need to work with older versions of libguestfs, use "mount-options" instead (using an empty string for the first parameter if you don't want any options).

mount-9p

 mount-9p mounttag mountpoint [options:..]

Mount the virtio-9p filesystem with the tag mounttag on the directory mountpoint.

If required, trans=virtio will be automatically added to the options. Any other options required can be passed in the optional options parameter.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

mount-local

 mount-local localmountpoint [readonly:true|false] [options:..] [cachetimeout:N] [debugcalls:true|false]

This call exports the libguestfs-accessible filesystem to a local mountpoint (directory) called localmountpoint. Ordinary reads and writes to files and directories under localmountpoint are redirected through libguestfs.

If the optional readonly flag is set to true, then writes to the filesystem return error EROFS.

options is a comma-separated list of mount options. See guestmount(1) for some useful options.

cachetimeout sets the timeout (in seconds) for cached directory entries. The default is 60 seconds. See guestmount(1) for further information.

If debugcalls is set to true, then additional debugging information is generated for every FUSE call.

When "mount-local" returns, the filesystem is ready, but is not processing requests (access to it will block). You have to call "mount-local-run" to run the main loop.

See "MOUNT LOCAL" in guestfs(3) for full documentation.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

mount-local-run

 mount-local-run

Run the main loop which translates kernel calls to libguestfs calls.

This should only be called after "mount-local" returns successfully. The call will not return until the filesystem is unmounted.

Note you must not make concurrent libguestfs calls on the same handle from another thread.

You may call this from a different thread than the one which called "mount-local", subject to the usual rules for threads and libguestfs (see "MULTIPLE HANDLES AND MULTIPLE THREADS" in guestfs(3)).

See "MOUNT LOCAL" in guestfs(3) for full documentation.

mount-loop

 mount-loop file mountpoint

This command lets you mount file (a filesystem image in a file) on a mount point. It is entirely equivalent to the command mount -o loop file mountpoint.

mount-options

 mount-options options mountable mountpoint

This is the same as the "mount" command, but it allows you to set the mount options as for the mount(8) -o flag.

If the options parameter is an empty string, then no options are passed (all options default to whatever the filesystem uses).

mount-ro

 mount-ro mountable mountpoint

This is the same as the "mount" command, but it mounts the filesystem with the read-only (-o ro) flag.

mount-vfs

 mount-vfs options vfstype mountable mountpoint

This is the same as the "mount" command, but it allows you to set both the mount options and the vfstype as for the mount(8) -o and -t flags.

mountpoints

 mountpoints

This call is similar to "mounts". That call returns a list of devices. This one returns a hash table (map) of device name to directory where the device is mounted.

mounts

 mounts

This returns the list of currently mounted filesystems. It returns the list of devices (eg. /dev/sda1, /dev/VG/LV).

Some internal mounts are not shown.

See also: "mountpoints"

mv

 mv src dest

This moves a file from src to dest where dest is either a destination filename or destination directory.

See also: "rename".

nr-devices

 nr-devices

This returns the number of whole block devices that were added. This is the same as the number of devices that would be returned if you called "list-devices".

To find out the maximum number of devices that could be added, call "max-disks".

ntfs-3g-probe

 ntfs-3g-probe true|false device

This command runs the ntfs-3g.probe(8) command which probes an NTFS device for mountability. (Not all NTFS volumes can be mounted read-write, and some cannot be mounted at all).

rw is a boolean flag. Set it to true if you want to test if the volume can be mounted read-write. Set it to false if you want to test if the volume can be mounted read-only.

The return value is an integer which 0 if the operation would succeed, or some non-zero value documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page.

ntfsclone-in

 ntfsclone-in (backupfile|-) device

Restore the backupfile (from a previous call to "ntfsclone-out") to device, overwriting any existing contents of this device.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

ntfsclone-out

 ntfsclone-out device (backupfile|-) [metadataonly:true|false] [rescue:true|false] [ignorefscheck:true|false] [preservetimestamps:true|false] [force:true|false]

Stream the NTFS filesystem device to the local file backupfile. The format used for the backup file is a special format used by the ntfsclone(8) tool.

If the optional metadataonly flag is true, then only the metadata is saved, losing all the user data (this is useful for diagnosing some filesystem problems).

The optional rescue, ignorefscheck, preservetimestamps and force flags have precise meanings detailed in the ntfsclone(8) man page.

Use "ntfsclone-in" to restore the file back to a libguestfs device.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

ntfsfix

 ntfsfix device [clearbadsectors:true|false]

This command repairs some fundamental NTFS inconsistencies, resets the NTFS journal file, and schedules an NTFS consistency check for the first boot into Windows.

This is not an equivalent of Windows chkdsk. It does not scan the filesystem for inconsistencies.

The optional clearbadsectors flag clears the list of bad sectors. This is useful after cloning a disk with bad sectors to a new disk.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

ntfsresize

ntfsresize-opts

 ntfsresize device [size:N] [force:true|false]

This command resizes an NTFS filesystem, expanding or shrinking it to the size of the underlying device.

The optional parameters are:

size

The new size (in bytes) of the filesystem. If omitted, the filesystem is resized to fit the container (eg. partition).

force

If this option is true, then force the resize of the filesystem even if the filesystem is marked as requiring a consistency check.

After the resize operation, the filesystem is always marked as requiring a consistency check (for safety). You have to boot into Windows to perform this check and clear this condition. If you don't set the force option then it is not possible to call "ntfsresize" multiple times on a single filesystem without booting into Windows between each resize.

See also ntfsresize(8).

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

ntfsresize-size

 ntfsresize-size device size

This command is the same as "ntfsresize" except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "ntfsresize" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

parse-environment

 parse-environment

Parse the program's environment and set flags in the handle accordingly. For example if LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 then the 'verbose' flag is set in the handle.

Most programs do not need to call this. It is done implicitly when you call "create".

See "ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES" in guestfs(3) for a list of environment variables that can affect libguestfs handles. See also "guestfs_create_flags" in guestfs(3), and "parse-environment-list".

parse-environment-list

 parse-environment-list 'environment ...'

Parse the list of strings in the argument environment and set flags in the handle accordingly. For example if LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 is a string in the list, then the 'verbose' flag is set in the handle.

This is the same as "parse-environment" except that it parses an explicit list of strings instead of the program's environment.

part-add

 part-add device prlogex startsect endsect

This command adds a partition to device. If there is no partition table on the device, call "part-init" first.

The prlogex parameter is the type of partition. Normally you should pass p or primary here, but MBR partition tables also support l (or logical) and e (or extended) partition types.

startsect and endsect are the start and end of the partition in sectors. endsect may be negative, which means it counts backwards from the end of the disk (-1 is the last sector).

Creating a partition which covers the whole disk is not so easy. Use "part-disk" to do that.

part-del

 part-del device partnum

This command deletes the partition numbered partnum on device.

Note that in the case of MBR partitioning, deleting an extended partition also deletes any logical partitions it contains.

part-disk

 part-disk device parttype

This command is simply a combination of "part-init" followed by "part-add" to create a single primary partition covering the whole disk.

parttype is the partition table type, usually mbr or gpt, but other possible values are described in "part-init".

part-get-bootable

 part-get-bootable device partnum

This command returns true if the partition partnum on device has the bootable flag set.

See also "part-set-bootable".

part-get-gpt-type

 part-get-gpt-type device partnum

Return the type GUID of numbered GPT partition partnum. For MBR partitions, return an appropriate GUID corresponding to the MBR type. Behaviour is undefined for other partition types.

part-get-mbr-id

 part-get-mbr-id device partnum

Returns the MBR type byte (also known as the ID byte) from the numbered partition partnum.

Note that only MBR (old DOS-style) partitions have type bytes. You will get undefined results for other partition table types (see "part-get-parttype").

part-get-name

 part-get-name device partnum

This gets the partition name on partition numbered partnum on device device. Note that partitions are numbered from 1.

The partition name can only be read on certain types of partition table. This works on gpt but not on mbr partitions.

part-get-parttype

 part-get-parttype device

This command examines the partition table on device and returns the partition table type (format) being used.

Common return values include: msdos (a DOS/Windows style MBR partition table), gpt (a GPT/EFI-style partition table). Other values are possible, although unusual. See "part-init" for a full list.

part-init

 part-init device parttype

This creates an empty partition table on device of one of the partition types listed below. Usually parttype should be either msdos or gpt (for large disks).

Initially there are no partitions. Following this, you should call "part-add" for each partition required.

Possible values for parttype are:

efi
gpt

Intel EFI / GPT partition table.

This is recommended for >= 2 TB partitions that will be accessed from Linux and Intel-based Mac OS X. It also has limited backwards compatibility with the mbr format.

mbr
msdos

The standard PC "Master Boot Record" (MBR) format used by MS-DOS and Windows. This partition type will only work for device sizes up to 2 TB. For large disks we recommend using gpt.

Other partition table types that may work but are not supported include:

aix

AIX disk labels.

amiga
rdb

Amiga "Rigid Disk Block" format.

bsd

BSD disk labels.

dasd

DASD, used on IBM mainframes.

dvh

MIPS/SGI volumes.

mac

Old Mac partition format. Modern Macs use gpt.

pc98

NEC PC-98 format, common in Japan apparently.

sun

Sun disk labels.

part-list

 part-list device

This command parses the partition table on device and returns the list of partitions found.

The fields in the returned structure are:

part_num

Partition number, counting from 1.

part_start

Start of the partition in bytes. To get sectors you have to divide by the device's sector size, see "blockdev-getss".

part_end

End of the partition in bytes.

part_size

Size of the partition in bytes.

part-set-bootable

 part-set-bootable device partnum true|false

This sets the bootable flag on partition numbered partnum on device device. Note that partitions are numbered from 1.

The bootable flag is used by some operating systems (notably Windows) to determine which partition to boot from. It is by no means universally recognized.

part-set-gpt-type

 part-set-gpt-type device partnum guid

Set the type GUID of numbered GPT partition partnum to guid. Return an error if the partition table of device isn't GPT, or if guid is not a valid GUID.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table#Partition_type_GUIDs for a useful list of type GUIDs.

part-set-mbr-id

 part-set-mbr-id device partnum idbyte

Sets the MBR type byte (also known as the ID byte) of the numbered partition partnum to idbyte. Note that the type bytes quoted in most documentation are in fact hexadecimal numbers, but usually documented without any leading "0x" which might be confusing.

Note that only MBR (old DOS-style) partitions have type bytes. You will get undefined results for other partition table types (see "part-get-parttype").

part-set-name

 part-set-name device partnum name

This sets the partition name on partition numbered partnum on device device. Note that partitions are numbered from 1.

The partition name can only be set on certain types of partition table. This works on gpt but not on mbr partitions.

part-to-dev

 part-to-dev partition

This function takes a partition name (eg. "/dev/sdb1") and removes the partition number, returning the device name (eg. "/dev/sdb").

The named partition must exist, for example as a string returned from "list-partitions".

See also "part-to-partnum", "device-index".

part-to-partnum

 part-to-partnum partition

This function takes a partition name (eg. "/dev/sdb1") and returns the partition number (eg. 1).

The named partition must exist, for example as a string returned from "list-partitions".

See also "part-to-dev".

ping-daemon

 ping-daemon

This is a test probe into the guestfs daemon running inside the hypervisor. Calling this function checks that the daemon responds to the ping message, without affecting the daemon or attached block device(s) in any other way.

pread

 pread path count offset

This command lets you read part of a file. It reads count bytes of the file, starting at offset, from file path.

This may read fewer bytes than requested. For further details see the pread(2) system call.

See also "pwrite", "pread-device".

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

pread-device

 pread-device device count offset

This command lets you read part of a block device. It reads count bytes of device, starting at offset.

This may read fewer bytes than requested. For further details see the pread(2) system call.

See also "pread".

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

pvchange-uuid

 pvchange-uuid device

Generate a new random UUID for the physical volume device.

pvchange-uuid-all

 pvchange-uuid-all

Generate new random UUIDs for all physical volumes.

pvcreate

 pvcreate device

This creates an LVM physical volume on the named device, where device should usually be a partition name such as /dev/sda1.

pvremove

 pvremove device

This wipes a physical volume device so that LVM will no longer recognise it.

The implementation uses the pvremove command which refuses to wipe physical volumes that contain any volume groups, so you have to remove those first.

pvresize

 pvresize device

This resizes (expands or shrinks) an existing LVM physical volume to match the new size of the underlying device.

pvresize-size

 pvresize-size device size

This command is the same as "pvresize" except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly.

pvs

 pvs

List all the physical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the pvs(8) command.

This returns a list of just the device names that contain PVs (eg. /dev/sda2).

See also "pvs-full".

pvs-full

 pvs-full

List all the physical volumes detected. This is the equivalent of the pvs(8) command. The "full" version includes all fields.

pvuuid

 pvuuid device

This command returns the UUID of the LVM PV device.

pwrite

 pwrite path content offset

This command writes to part of a file. It writes the data buffer content to the file path starting at offset offset.

This command implements the pwrite(2) system call, and like that system call it may not write the full data requested. The return value is the number of bytes that were actually written to the file. This could even be 0, although short writes are unlikely for regular files in ordinary circumstances.

See also "pread", "pwrite-device".

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

pwrite-device

 pwrite-device device content offset

This command writes to part of a device. It writes the data buffer content to device starting at offset offset.

This command implements the pwrite(2) system call, and like that system call it may not write the full data requested (although short writes to disk devices and partitions are probably impossible with standard Linux kernels).

See also "pwrite".

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

read-file

 read-file path

This calls returns the contents of the file path as a buffer.

Unlike "cat", this function can correctly handle files that contain embedded ASCII NUL characters.

read-lines

 read-lines path

Return the contents of the file named path.

The file contents are returned as a list of lines. Trailing LF and CRLF character sequences are not returned.

Note that this function cannot correctly handle binary files (specifically, files containing \0 character which is treated as end of string). For those you need to use the "read-file" function and split the buffer into lines yourself.

readdir

 readdir dir

This returns the list of directory entries in directory dir.

All entries in the directory are returned, including . and ... The entries are not sorted, but returned in the same order as the underlying filesystem.

Also this call returns basic file type information about each file. The ftyp field will contain one of the following characters:

'b'

Block special

'c'

Char special

'd'

Directory

'f'

FIFO (named pipe)

'l'

Symbolic link

'r'

Regular file

's'

Socket

'u'

Unknown file type

'?'

The readdir(3) call returned a d_type field with an unexpected value

This function is primarily intended for use by programs. To get a simple list of names, use "ls". To get a printable directory for human consumption, use "ll".

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

 readlink path

This command reads the target of a symbolic link.

 readlinklist path 'names ...'

This call allows you to do a readlink operation on multiple files, where all files are in the directory path. names is the list of files from this directory.

On return you get a list of strings, with a one-to-one correspondence to the names list. Each string is the value of the symbolic link.

If the readlink(2) operation fails on any name, then the corresponding result string is the empty string "". However the whole operation is completed even if there were readlink(2) errors, and so you can call this function with names where you don't know if they are symbolic links already (albeit slightly less efficient).

This call is intended for programs that want to efficiently list a directory contents without making many round-trips.

realpath

 realpath path

Return the canonicalized absolute pathname of path. The returned path has no ., .. or symbolic link path elements.

remount

 remount mountpoint [rw:true|false]

This call allows you to change the rw (readonly/read-write) flag on an already mounted filesystem at mountpoint, converting a readonly filesystem to be read-write, or vice-versa.

Note that at the moment you must supply the "optional" rw parameter. In future we may allow other flags to be adjusted.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

remove-drive

 remove-drive label

This function is conceptually the opposite of "add-drive-opts". It removes the drive that was previously added with label label.

Note that in order to remove drives, you have to add them with labels (see the optional label argument to "add-drive-opts"). If you didn't use a label, then they cannot be removed.

You can call this function before or after launching the handle. If called after launch, if the backend supports it, we try to hot unplug the drive: see "HOTPLUGGING" in guestfs(3). The disk must not be in use (eg. mounted) when you do this. We try to detect if the disk is in use and stop you from doing this.

removexattr

 removexattr xattr path

This call removes the extended attribute named xattr of the file path.

See also: "lremovexattr", attr(5).

rename

 rename oldpath newpath

Rename a file to a new place on the same filesystem. This is the same as the Linux rename(2) system call. In most cases you are better to use "mv" instead.

resize2fs

 resize2fs device

This resizes an ext2, ext3 or ext4 filesystem to match the size of the underlying device.

See also "RESIZE2FS ERRORS" in guestfs(3).

resize2fs-M

 resize2fs-M device

This command is the same as "resize2fs", but the filesystem is resized to its minimum size. This works like the -M option to the resize2fs command.

To get the resulting size of the filesystem you should call "tune2fs-l" and read the Block size and Block count values. These two numbers, multiplied together, give the resulting size of the minimal filesystem in bytes.

See also "RESIZE2FS ERRORS" in guestfs(3).

resize2fs-size

 resize2fs-size device size

This command is the same as "resize2fs" except that it allows you to specify the new size (in bytes) explicitly.

See also "RESIZE2FS ERRORS" in guestfs(3).

rm

 rm path

Remove the single file path.

rm-f

 rm-f path

Remove the file path.

If the file doesn't exist, that error is ignored. (Other errors, eg. I/O errors or bad paths, are not ignored)

This call cannot remove directories. Use "rmdir" to remove an empty directory, or "rm-rf" to remove directories recursively.

rm-rf

 rm-rf path

Remove the file or directory path, recursively removing the contents if its a directory. This is like the rm -rf shell command.

rmdir

 rmdir path

Remove the single directory path.

rmmountpoint

 rmmountpoint exemptpath

This calls removes a mountpoint that was previously created with "mkmountpoint". See "mkmountpoint" for full details.

rsync

 rsync src dest [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false]

This call may be used to copy or synchronize two directories under the same libguestfs handle. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily.

src and dest are the source and destination directories. Files are copied from src to dest.

The optional arguments are:

archive

Turns on archive mode. This is the same as passing the --archive flag to rsync.

deletedest

Delete files at the destination that do not exist at the source.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

rsync-in

 rsync-in remote dest [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false]

This call may be used to copy or synchronize the filesystem on the host or on a remote computer with the filesystem within libguestfs. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily.

This call only works if the network is enabled. See "set-network" or the --network option to various tools like guestfish(1).

Files are copied from the remote server and directory specified by remote to the destination directory dest.

The format of the remote server string is defined by rsync(1). Note that there is no way to supply a password or passphrase so the target must be set up not to require one.

The optional arguments are the same as those of "rsync".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

rsync-out

 rsync-out src remote [archive:true|false] [deletedest:true|false]

This call may be used to copy or synchronize the filesystem within libguestfs with a filesystem on the host or on a remote computer. This uses the rsync(1) program which uses a fast algorithm that avoids copying files unnecessarily.

This call only works if the network is enabled. See "set-network" or the --network option to various tools like guestfish(1).

Files are copied from the source directory src to the remote server and directory specified by remote.

The format of the remote server string is defined by rsync(1). Note that there is no way to supply a password or passphrase so the target must be set up not to require one.

The optional arguments are the same as those of "rsync".

Globbing does not happen on the src parameter. In programs which use the API directly you have to expand wildcards yourself (see "glob-expand"). In guestfish you can use the glob command (see "glob" in guestfish(1)), for example:

 ><fs> glob rsync-out /* rsync://remote/

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

scrub-device

 scrub-device device

This command writes patterns over device to make data retrieval more difficult.

It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details.

scrub-file

 scrub-file file

This command writes patterns over a file to make data retrieval more difficult.

The file is removed after scrubbing.

It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details.

scrub-freespace

 scrub-freespace dir

This command creates the directory dir and then fills it with files until the filesystem is full, and scrubs the files as for "scrub-file", and deletes them. The intention is to scrub any free space on the partition containing dir.

It is an interface to the scrub(1) program. See that manual page for more details.

set-append

append

 set-append append

This function is used to add additional options to the libguestfs appliance kernel command line.

The default is NULL unless overridden by setting LIBGUESTFS_APPEND environment variable.

Setting append to NULL means no additional options are passed (libguestfs always adds a few of its own).

set-attach-method

attach-method

 set-attach-method backend

Set the method that libguestfs uses to connect to the backend guestfsd daemon.

See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-backend" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

set-autosync

autosync

 set-autosync true|false

If autosync is true, this enables autosync. Libguestfs will make a best effort attempt to make filesystems consistent and synchronized when the handle is closed (also if the program exits without closing handles).

This is enabled by default (since libguestfs 1.5.24, previously it was disabled by default).

set-backend

backend

 set-backend backend

Set the method that libguestfs uses to connect to the backend guestfsd daemon.

This handle property was previously called the "attach method".

See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3).

set-backend-setting

 set-backend-setting name val

Append "name=value" to the backend settings string list. However if a string already exists matching "name" or beginning with "name=", then that setting is replaced.

See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3), "BACKEND SETTINGS" in guestfs(3).

set-backend-settings

 set-backend-settings 'settings ...'

Set a list of zero or more settings which are passed through to the current backend. Each setting is a string which is interpreted in a backend-specific way, or ignored if not understood by the backend.

The default value is an empty list, unless the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND_SETTINGS was set when the handle was created. This environment variable contains a colon-separated list of settings.

This call replaces all backend settings. If you want to replace a single backend setting, see "set-backend-setting". If you want to clear a single backend setting, see "clear-backend-setting".

See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3), "BACKEND SETTINGS" in guestfs(3).

set-cachedir

cachedir

 set-cachedir cachedir

Set the directory used by the handle to store the appliance cache, when using a supermin appliance. The appliance is cached and shared between all handles which have the same effective user ID.

The environment variables LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR and TMPDIR control the default value: If LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR is set, then that is the default. Else if TMPDIR is set, then that is the default. Else /var/tmp is the default.

set-direct

direct

 set-direct true|false

If the direct appliance mode flag is enabled, then stdin and stdout are passed directly through to the appliance once it is launched.

One consequence of this is that log messages aren't caught by the library and handled by "set-log-message-callback", but go straight to stdout.

You probably don't want to use this unless you know what you are doing.

The default is disabled.

set-e2attrs

 set-e2attrs file attrs [clear:true|false]

This sets or clears the file attributes attrs associated with the inode file.

attrs is a string of characters representing file attributes. See "get-e2attrs" for a list of possible attributes. Not all attributes can be changed.

If optional boolean clear is not present or false, then the attrs listed are set in the inode.

If clear is true, then the attrs listed are cleared in the inode.

In both cases, other attributes not present in the attrs string are left unchanged.

These attributes are only present when the file is located on an ext2/3/4 filesystem. Using this call on other filesystem types will result in an error.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

set-e2generation

 set-e2generation file generation

This sets the ext2 file generation of a file.

See "get-e2generation".

set-e2label

 set-e2label device label

This sets the ext2/3/4 filesystem label of the filesystem on device to label. Filesystem labels are limited to 16 characters.

You can use either "tune2fs-l" or "get-e2label" to return the existing label on a filesystem.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-label" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

set-e2uuid

 set-e2uuid device uuid

This sets the ext2/3/4 filesystem UUID of the filesystem on device to uuid. The format of the UUID and alternatives such as clear, random and time are described in the tune2fs(8) manpage.

You can use "vfs-uuid" to return the existing UUID of a filesystem.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-uuid" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

set-hv

hv

 set-hv hv

Set the hypervisor binary that we will use. The hypervisor depends on the backend, but is usually the location of the qemu/KVM hypervisor. For the uml backend, it is the location of the linux or vmlinux binary.

The default is chosen when the library was compiled by the configure script.

You can also override this by setting the LIBGUESTFS_HV environment variable.

Note that you should call this function as early as possible after creating the handle. This is because some pre-launch operations depend on testing qemu features (by running qemu -help). If the qemu binary changes, we don't retest features, and so you might see inconsistent results. Using the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_HV is safest of all since that picks the qemu binary at the same time as the handle is created.

set-label

 set-label mountable label

Set the filesystem label on mountable to label.

Only some filesystem types support labels, and libguestfs supports setting labels on only a subset of these.

ext2, ext3, ext4

Labels are limited to 16 bytes.

NTFS

Labels are limited to 128 unicode characters.

XFS

The label is limited to 12 bytes. The filesystem must not be mounted when trying to set the label.

btrfs

The label is limited to 256 bytes and some characters are not allowed. Setting the label on a btrfs subvolume will set the label on its parent filesystem. The filesystem must not be mounted when trying to set the label.

To read the label on a filesystem, call "vfs-label".

set-libvirt-requested-credential

 set-libvirt-requested-credential index cred

After requesting the index'th credential from the user, call this function to pass the answer back to libvirt.

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

set-libvirt-supported-credentials

 set-libvirt-supported-credentials 'creds ...'

Call this function before setting an event handler for GUESTFS_EVENT_LIBVIRT_AUTH, to supply the list of credential types that the program knows how to process.

The creds list must be a non-empty list of strings. Possible strings are:

username
authname
language
cnonce
passphrase
echoprompt
noechoprompt
realm
external

See libvirt documentation for the meaning of these credential types.

See "LIBVIRT AUTHENTICATION" in guestfs(3) for documentation and example code.

set-memsize

memsize

 set-memsize memsize

This sets the memory size in megabytes allocated to the hypervisor. This only has any effect if called before "launch".

You can also change this by setting the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE before the handle is created.

For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3).

set-network

network

 set-network true|false

If network is true, then the network is enabled in the libguestfs appliance. The default is false.

This affects whether commands are able to access the network (see "RUNNING COMMANDS" in guestfs(3)).

You must call this before calling "launch", otherwise it has no effect.

set-path

path

 set-path searchpath

Set the path that libguestfs searches for kernel and initrd.img.

The default is $libdir/guestfs unless overridden by setting LIBGUESTFS_PATH environment variable.

Setting path to NULL restores the default path.

set-pgroup

pgroup

 set-pgroup true|false

If pgroup is true, child processes are placed into their own process group.

The practical upshot of this is that signals like SIGINT (from users pressing ^C) won't be received by the child process.

The default for this flag is false, because usually you want ^C to kill the subprocess. Guestfish sets this flag to true when used interactively, so that ^C can cancel long-running commands gracefully (see "user-cancel").

set-program

program

 set-program program

Set the program name. This is an informative string which the main program may optionally set in the handle.

When the handle is created, the program name in the handle is set to the basename from argv[0]. If that was not possible, it is set to the empty string (but never NULL).

set-qemu

qemu

 set-qemu hv

Set the hypervisor binary (usually qemu) that we will use.

The default is chosen when the library was compiled by the configure script.

You can also override this by setting the LIBGUESTFS_HV environment variable.

Setting hv to NULL restores the default qemu binary.

Note that you should call this function as early as possible after creating the handle. This is because some pre-launch operations depend on testing qemu features (by running qemu -help). If the qemu binary changes, we don't retest features, and so you might see inconsistent results. Using the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_HV is safest of all since that picks the qemu binary at the same time as the handle is created.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "set-hv" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

set-recovery-proc

recovery-proc

 set-recovery-proc true|false

If this is called with the parameter false then "launch" does not create a recovery process. The purpose of the recovery process is to stop runaway hypervisor processes in the case where the main program aborts abruptly.

This only has any effect if called before "launch", and the default is true.

About the only time when you would want to disable this is if the main process will fork itself into the background ("daemonize" itself). In this case the recovery process thinks that the main program has disappeared and so kills the hypervisor, which is not very helpful.

set-selinux

selinux

 set-selinux true|false

This sets the selinux flag that is passed to the appliance at boot time. The default is selinux=0 (disabled).

Note that if SELinux is enabled, it is always in Permissive mode (enforcing=0).

For more information on the architecture of libguestfs, see guestfs(3).

set-smp

smp

 set-smp smp

Change the number of virtual CPUs assigned to the appliance. The default is 1. Increasing this may improve performance, though often it has no effect.

This function must be called before "launch".

set-tmpdir

tmpdir

 set-tmpdir tmpdir

Set the directory used by the handle to store temporary files.

The environment variables LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR and TMPDIR control the default value: If LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR is set, then that is the default. Else if TMPDIR is set, then that is the default. Else /tmp is the default.

set-trace

trace

 set-trace true|false

If the command trace flag is set to 1, then libguestfs calls, parameters and return values are traced.

If you want to trace C API calls into libguestfs (and other libraries) then possibly a better way is to use the external ltrace(1) command.

Command traces are disabled unless the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_TRACE is defined and set to 1.

Trace messages are normally sent to stderr, unless you register a callback to send them somewhere else (see "set-event-callback").

set-uuid

 set-uuid device uuid

Set the filesystem UUID on device to uuid.

Only some filesystem types support setting UUIDs.

To read the UUID on a filesystem, call "vfs-uuid".

set-verbose

verbose

 set-verbose true|false

If verbose is true, this turns on verbose messages.

Verbose messages are disabled unless the environment variable LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG is defined and set to 1.

Verbose messages are normally sent to stderr, unless you register a callback to send them somewhere else (see "set-event-callback").

setcon

 setcon context

This sets the SELinux security context of the daemon to the string context.

See the documentation about SELINUX in guestfs(3).

setxattr

 setxattr xattr val vallen path

This call sets the extended attribute named xattr of the file path to the value val (of length vallen). The value is arbitrary 8 bit data.

See also: "lsetxattr", attr(5).

sfdisk

 sfdisk device cyls heads sectors 'lines ...'

This is a direct interface to the sfdisk(8) program for creating partitions on block devices.

device should be a block device, for example /dev/sda.

cyls, heads and sectors are the number of cylinders, heads and sectors on the device, which are passed directly to sfdisk as the -C, -H and -S parameters. If you pass 0 for any of these, then the corresponding parameter is omitted. Usually for 'large' disks, you can just pass 0 for these, but for small (floppy-sized) disks, sfdisk (or rather, the kernel) cannot work out the right geometry and you will need to tell it.

lines is a list of lines that we feed to sfdisk. For more information refer to the sfdisk(8) manpage.

To create a single partition occupying the whole disk, you would pass lines as a single element list, when the single element being the string , (comma).

See also: "sfdisk-l", "sfdisk-N", "part-init"

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-add" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

sfdiskM

 sfdiskM device 'lines ...'

This is a simplified interface to the "sfdisk" command, where partition sizes are specified in megabytes only (rounded to the nearest cylinder) and you don't need to specify the cyls, heads and sectors parameters which were rarely if ever used anyway.

See also: "sfdisk", the sfdisk(8) manpage and "part-disk"

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-add" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

sfdisk-N

 sfdisk-N device partnum cyls heads sectors line

This runs sfdisk(8) option to modify just the single partition n (note: n counts from 1).

For other parameters, see "sfdisk". You should usually pass 0 for the cyls/heads/sectors parameters.

See also: "part-add"

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-add" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

sfdisk-disk-geometry

 sfdisk-disk-geometry device

This displays the disk geometry of device read from the partition table. Especially in the case where the underlying block device has been resized, this can be different from the kernel's idea of the geometry (see "sfdisk-kernel-geometry").

The result is in human-readable format, and not designed to be parsed.

sfdisk-kernel-geometry

 sfdisk-kernel-geometry device

This displays the kernel's idea of the geometry of device.

The result is in human-readable format, and not designed to be parsed.

sfdisk-l

 sfdisk-l device

This displays the partition table on device, in the human-readable output of the sfdisk(8) command. It is not intended to be parsed.

See also: "part-list"

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "part-list" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

sh

 sh command

This call runs a command from the guest filesystem via the guest's /bin/sh.

This is like "command", but passes the command to:

 /bin/sh -c "command"

Depending on the guest's shell, this usually results in wildcards being expanded, shell expressions being interpolated and so on.

All the provisos about "command" apply to this call.

sh-lines

 sh-lines command

This is the same as "sh", but splits the result into a list of lines.

See also: "command-lines"

shutdown

 shutdown

This is the opposite of "launch". It performs an orderly shutdown of the backend process(es). If the autosync flag is set (which is the default) then the disk image is synchronized.

If the subprocess exits with an error then this function will return an error, which should not be ignored (it may indicate that the disk image could not be written out properly).

It is safe to call this multiple times. Extra calls are ignored.

This call does not close or free up the handle. You still need to call "close" afterwards.

"close" will call this if you don't do it explicitly, but note that any errors are ignored in that case.

sleep

 sleep secs

Sleep for secs seconds.

stat

 stat path

Returns file information for the given path.

This is the same as the stat(2) system call.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "statns" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

statns

 statns path

Returns file information for the given path.

This is the same as the stat(2) system call.

statvfs

 statvfs path

Returns file system statistics for any mounted file system. path should be a file or directory in the mounted file system (typically it is the mount point itself, but it doesn't need to be).

This is the same as the statvfs(2) system call.

strings

 strings path

This runs the strings(1) command on a file and returns the list of printable strings found.

The strings command has, in the past, had problems with parsing untrusted files. These are mitigated in the current version of libguestfs, but see "CVE-2014-8484" in guestfs(3).

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

strings-e

 strings-e encoding path

This is like the "strings" command, but allows you to specify the encoding of strings that are looked for in the source file path.

Allowed encodings are:

s

Single 7-bit-byte characters like ASCII and the ASCII-compatible parts of ISO-8859-X (this is what "strings" uses).

S

Single 8-bit-byte characters.

b

16-bit big endian strings such as those encoded in UTF-16BE or UCS-2BE.

l (lower case letter L)

16-bit little endian such as UTF-16LE and UCS-2LE. This is useful for examining binaries in Windows guests.

B

32-bit big endian such as UCS-4BE.

L

32-bit little endian such as UCS-4LE.

The returned strings are transcoded to UTF-8.

The strings command has, in the past, had problems with parsing untrusted files. These are mitigated in the current version of libguestfs, but see "CVE-2014-8484" in guestfs(3).

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

swapoff-device

 swapoff-device device

This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap device or partition named device. See "swapon-device".

swapoff-file

 swapoff-file file

This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap on file.

swapoff-label

 swapoff-label label

This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap on labeled swap partition.

swapoff-uuid

 swapoff-uuid uuid

This command disables the libguestfs appliance swap partition with the given UUID.

swapon-device

 swapon-device device

This command enables the libguestfs appliance to use the swap device or partition named device. The increased memory is made available for all commands, for example those run using "command" or "sh".

Note that you should not swap to existing guest swap partitions unless you know what you are doing. They may contain hibernation information, or other information that the guest doesn't want you to trash. You also risk leaking information about the host to the guest this way. Instead, attach a new host device to the guest and swap on that.

swapon-file

 swapon-file file

This command enables swap to a file. See "swapon-device" for other notes.

swapon-label

 swapon-label label

This command enables swap to a labeled swap partition. See "swapon-device" for other notes.

swapon-uuid

 swapon-uuid uuid

This command enables swap to a swap partition with the given UUID. See "swapon-device" for other notes.

sync

 sync

This syncs the disk, so that any writes are flushed through to the underlying disk image.

You should always call this if you have modified a disk image, before closing the handle.

syslinux

 syslinux device [directory:..]

Install the SYSLINUX bootloader on device.

The device parameter must be either a whole disk formatted as a FAT filesystem, or a partition formatted as a FAT filesystem. In the latter case, the partition should be marked as "active" ("part-set-bootable") and a Master Boot Record must be installed (eg. using "pwrite-device") on the first sector of the whole disk. The SYSLINUX package comes with some suitable Master Boot Records. See the syslinux(1) man page for further information.

The optional arguments are:

directory

Install SYSLINUX in the named subdirectory, instead of in the root directory of the FAT filesystem.

Additional configuration can be supplied to SYSLINUX by placing a file called syslinux.cfg on the FAT filesystem, either in the root directory, or under directory if that optional argument is being used. For further information about the contents of this file, see syslinux(1).

See also "extlinux".

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

tail

 tail path

This command returns up to the last 10 lines of a file as a list of strings.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

tail-n

 tail-n nrlines path

If the parameter nrlines is a positive number, this returns the last nrlines lines of the file path.

If the parameter nrlines is a negative number, this returns lines from the file path, starting with the -nrlinesth line.

If the parameter nrlines is zero, this returns an empty list.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

tar-in

tar-in-opts

 tar-in (tarfile|-) directory [compress:..]

This command uploads and unpacks local file tarfile into directory.

The optional compress flag controls compression. If not given, then the input should be an uncompressed tar file. Otherwise one of the following strings may be given to select the compression type of the input file: compress, gzip, bzip2, xz, lzop. (Note that not all builds of libguestfs will support all of these compression types).

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

tar-out

tar-out-opts

 tar-out directory (tarfile|-) [compress:..] [numericowner:true|false] [excludes:..]

This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file tarfile.

The optional compress flag controls compression. If not given, then the output will be an uncompressed tar file. Otherwise one of the following strings may be given to select the compression type of the output file: compress, gzip, bzip2, xz, lzop. (Note that not all builds of libguestfs will support all of these compression types).

The other optional arguments are:

excludes

A list of wildcards. Files are excluded if they match any of the wildcards.

numericowner

If set to true, the output tar file will contain UID/GID numbers instead of user/group names.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

tgz-in

 tgz-in (tarball|-) directory

This command uploads and unpacks local file tarball (a gzip compressed tar file) into directory.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-in" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

tgz-out

 tgz-out directory (tarball|-)

This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file tarball.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-out" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

touch

 touch path

Touch acts like the touch(1) command. It can be used to update the timestamps on a file, or, if the file does not exist, to create a new zero-length file.

This command only works on regular files, and will fail on other file types such as directories, symbolic links, block special etc.

truncate

 truncate path

This command truncates path to a zero-length file. The file must exist already.

truncate-size

 truncate-size path size

This command truncates path to size size bytes. The file must exist already.

If the current file size is less than size then the file is extended to the required size with zero bytes. This creates a sparse file (ie. disk blocks are not allocated for the file until you write to it). To create a non-sparse file of zeroes, use "fallocate64" instead.

tune2fs

 tune2fs device [force:true|false] [maxmountcount:N] [mountcount:N] [errorbehavior:..] [group:N] [intervalbetweenchecks:N] [reservedblockspercentage:N] [lastmounteddirectory:..] [reservedblockscount:N] [user:N]

This call allows you to adjust various filesystem parameters of an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem called device.

The optional parameters are:

force

Force tune2fs to complete the operation even in the face of errors. This is the same as the tune2fs -f option.

maxmountcount

Set the number of mounts after which the filesystem is checked by e2fsck(8). If this is 0 then the number of mounts is disregarded. This is the same as the tune2fs -c option.

mountcount

Set the number of times the filesystem has been mounted. This is the same as the tune2fs -C option.

errorbehavior

Change the behavior of the kernel code when errors are detected. Possible values currently are: continue, remount-ro, panic. In practice these options don't really make any difference, particularly for write errors.

This is the same as the tune2fs -e option.

group

Set the group which can use reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs -g option except that it can only be specified as a number.

intervalbetweenchecks

Adjust the maximal time between two filesystem checks (in seconds). If the option is passed as 0 then time-dependent checking is disabled.

This is the same as the tune2fs -i option.

reservedblockspercentage

Set the percentage of the filesystem which may only be allocated by privileged processes. This is the same as the tune2fs -m option.

lastmounteddirectory

Set the last mounted directory. This is the same as the tune2fs -M option.

reservedblockscount Set the number of reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs -r option.
user

Set the user who can use the reserved filesystem blocks. This is the same as the tune2fs -u option except that it can only be specified as a number.

To get the current values of filesystem parameters, see "tune2fs-l". For precise details of how tune2fs works, see the tune2fs(8) man page.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

tune2fs-l

 tune2fs-l device

This returns the contents of the ext2, ext3 or ext4 filesystem superblock on device.

It is the same as running tune2fs -l device. See tune2fs(8) manpage for more details. The list of fields returned isn't clearly defined, and depends on both the version of tune2fs that libguestfs was built against, and the filesystem itself.

txz-in

 txz-in (tarball|-) directory

This command uploads and unpacks local file tarball (an xz compressed tar file) into directory.

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-in" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

txz-out

 txz-out directory (tarball|-)

This command packs the contents of directory and downloads it to local file tarball (as an xz compressed tar archive).

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "tar-out" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

umask

 umask mask

This function sets the mask used for creating new files and device nodes to mask & 0777.

Typical umask values would be 022 which creates new files with permissions like "-rw-r--r--" or "-rwxr-xr-x", and 002 which creates new files with permissions like "-rw-rw-r--" or "-rwxrwxr-x".

The default umask is 022. This is important because it means that directories and device nodes will be created with 0644 or 0755 mode even if you specify 0777.

See also "get-umask", umask(2), "mknod", "mkdir".

This call returns the previous umask.

umount

unmount

umount-opts

 umount pathordevice [force:true|false] [lazyunmount:true|false]

This unmounts the given filesystem. The filesystem may be specified either by its mountpoint (path) or the device which contains the filesystem.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

umount-all

unmount-all

 umount-all

This unmounts all mounted filesystems.

Some internal mounts are not unmounted by this call.

umount-local

 umount-local [retry:true|false]

If libguestfs is exporting the filesystem on a local mountpoint, then this unmounts it.

See "MOUNT LOCAL" in guestfs(3) for full documentation.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

upload

 upload (filename|-) remotefilename

Upload local file filename to remotefilename on the filesystem.

filename can also be a named pipe.

See also "download".

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

upload-offset

 upload-offset (filename|-) remotefilename offset

Upload local file filename to remotefilename on the filesystem.

remotefilename is overwritten starting at the byte offset specified. The intention is to overwrite parts of existing files or devices, although if a non-existent file is specified then it is created with a "hole" before offset. The size of the data written is implicit in the size of the source filename.

Note that there is no limit on the amount of data that can be uploaded with this call, unlike with "pwrite", and this call always writes the full amount unless an error occurs.

See also "upload", "pwrite".

Use - instead of a filename to read/write from stdin/stdout.

user-cancel

 user-cancel

This function cancels the current upload or download operation.

Unlike most other libguestfs calls, this function is signal safe and thread safe. You can call it from a signal handler or from another thread, without needing to do any locking.

The transfer that was in progress (if there is one) will stop shortly afterwards, and will return an error. The errno (see "guestfs_last_errno") is set to EINTR, so you can test for this to find out if the operation was cancelled or failed because of another error.

No cleanup is performed: for example, if a file was being uploaded then after cancellation there may be a partially uploaded file. It is the caller's responsibility to clean up if necessary.

There are two common places that you might call "user-cancel":

In an interactive text-based program, you might call it from a SIGINT signal handler so that pressing ^C cancels the current operation. (You also need to call "guestfs_set_pgroup" so that child processes don't receive the ^C signal).

In a graphical program, when the main thread is displaying a progress bar with a cancel button, wire up the cancel button to call this function.

utimens

 utimens path atsecs atnsecs mtsecs mtnsecs

This command sets the timestamps of a file with nanosecond precision.

atsecs, atnsecs are the last access time (atime) in secs and nanoseconds from the epoch.

mtsecs, mtnsecs are the last modification time (mtime) in secs and nanoseconds from the epoch.

If the *nsecs field contains the special value -1 then the corresponding timestamp is set to the current time. (The *secs field is ignored in this case).

If the *nsecs field contains the special value -2 then the corresponding timestamp is left unchanged. (The *secs field is ignored in this case).

utsname

 utsname

This returns the kernel version of the appliance, where this is available. This information is only useful for debugging. Nothing in the returned structure is defined by the API.

version

 version

Return the libguestfs version number that the program is linked against.

Note that because of dynamic linking this is not necessarily the version of libguestfs that you compiled against. You can compile the program, and then at runtime dynamically link against a completely different libguestfs.so library.

This call was added in version 1.0.58. In previous versions of libguestfs there was no way to get the version number. From C code you can use dynamic linker functions to find out if this symbol exists (if it doesn't, then it's an earlier version).

The call returns a structure with four elements. The first three (major, minor and release) are numbers and correspond to the usual version triplet. The fourth element (extra) is a string and is normally empty, but may be used for distro-specific information.

To construct the original version string: $major.$minor.$release$extra

See also: "LIBGUESTFS VERSION NUMBERS" in guestfs(3).

Note: Don't use this call to test for availability of features. In enterprise distributions we backport features from later versions into earlier versions, making this an unreliable way to test for features. Use "available" or "feature-available" instead.

vfs-label

 vfs-label mountable

This returns the label of the filesystem on mountable.

If the filesystem is unlabeled, this returns the empty string.

To find a filesystem from the label, use "findfs-label".

vfs-type

 vfs-type mountable

This command gets the filesystem type corresponding to the filesystem on mountable.

For most filesystems, the result is the name of the Linux VFS module which would be used to mount this filesystem if you mounted it without specifying the filesystem type. For example a string such as ext3 or ntfs.

vfs-uuid

get-uuid

 vfs-uuid mountable

This returns the filesystem UUID of the filesystem on mountable.

If the filesystem does not have a UUID, this returns the empty string.

To find a filesystem from the UUID, use "findfs-uuid".

vg-activate

 vg-activate true|false 'volgroups ...'

This command activates or (if activate is false) deactivates all logical volumes in the listed volume groups volgroups.

This command is the same as running vgchange -a y|n volgroups...

Note that if volgroups is an empty list then all volume groups are activated or deactivated.

vg-activate-all

 vg-activate-all true|false

This command activates or (if activate is false) deactivates all logical volumes in all volume groups.

This command is the same as running vgchange -a y|n

vgchange-uuid

 vgchange-uuid vg

Generate a new random UUID for the volume group vg.

vgchange-uuid-all

 vgchange-uuid-all

Generate new random UUIDs for all volume groups.

vgcreate

 vgcreate volgroup 'physvols ...'

This creates an LVM volume group called volgroup from the non-empty list of physical volumes physvols.

vglvuuids

 vglvuuids vgname

Given a VG called vgname, this returns the UUIDs of all the logical volumes created in this volume group.

You can use this along with "lvs" and "lvuuid" calls to associate logical volumes and volume groups.

See also "vgpvuuids".

vgmeta

 vgmeta vgname

vgname is an LVM volume group. This command examines the volume group and returns its metadata.

Note that the metadata is an internal structure used by LVM, subject to change at any time, and is provided for information only.

vgpvuuids

 vgpvuuids vgname

Given a VG called vgname, this returns the UUIDs of all the physical volumes that this volume group resides on.

You can use this along with "pvs" and "pvuuid" calls to associate physical volumes and volume groups.

See also "vglvuuids".

vgremove

 vgremove vgname

Remove an LVM volume group vgname, (for example VG).

This also forcibly removes all logical volumes in the volume group (if any).

vgrename

 vgrename volgroup newvolgroup

Rename a volume group volgroup with the new name newvolgroup.

vgs

 vgs

List all the volumes groups detected. This is the equivalent of the vgs(8) command.

This returns a list of just the volume group names that were detected (eg. VolGroup00).

See also "vgs-full".

vgs-full

 vgs-full

List all the volumes groups detected. This is the equivalent of the vgs(8) command. The "full" version includes all fields.

vgscan

 vgscan

This rescans all block devices and rebuilds the list of LVM physical volumes, volume groups and logical volumes.

vguuid

 vguuid vgname

This command returns the UUID of the LVM VG named vgname.

wc-c

 wc-c path

This command counts the characters in a file, using the wc -c external command.

wc-l

 wc-l path

This command counts the lines in a file, using the wc -l external command.

wc-w

 wc-w path

This command counts the words in a file, using the wc -w external command.

wipefs

 wipefs device

This command erases filesystem or RAID signatures from the specified device to make the filesystem invisible to libblkid.

This does not erase the filesystem itself nor any other data from the device.

Compare with "zero" which zeroes the first few blocks of a device.

write

 write path content

This call creates a file called path. The content of the file is the string content (which can contain any 8 bit data).

See also "write-append".

write-append

 write-append path content

This call appends content to the end of file path. If path does not exist, then a new file is created.

See also "write".

write-file

 write-file path content size

This call creates a file called path. The contents of the file is the string content (which can contain any 8 bit data), with length size.

As a special case, if size is 0 then the length is calculated using strlen (so in this case the content cannot contain embedded ASCII NULs).

NB. Owing to a bug, writing content containing ASCII NUL characters does not work, even if the length is specified.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "write" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

xfs-admin

 xfs-admin device [extunwritten:true|false] [imgfile:true|false] [v2log:true|false] [projid32bit:true|false] [lazycounter:true|false] [label:..] [uuid:..]

Change the parameters of the XFS filesystem on device.

Devices that are mounted cannot be modified. Administrators must unmount filesystems before this call can modify parameters.

Some of the parameters of a mounted filesystem can be examined and modified using the "xfs-info" and "xfs-growfs" calls.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

xfs-growfs

 xfs-growfs path [datasec:true|false] [logsec:true|false] [rtsec:true|false] [datasize:N] [logsize:N] [rtsize:N] [rtextsize:N] [maxpct:N]

Grow the XFS filesystem mounted at path.

The returned struct contains geometry information. Missing fields are returned as -1 (for numeric fields) or empty string.

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

xfs-info

 xfs-info pathordevice

pathordevice is a mounted XFS filesystem or a device containing an XFS filesystem. This command returns the geometry of the filesystem.

The returned struct contains geometry information. Missing fields are returned as -1 (for numeric fields) or empty string.

xfs-repair

 xfs-repair device [forcelogzero:true|false] [nomodify:true|false] [noprefetch:true|false] [forcegeometry:true|false] [maxmem:N] [ihashsize:N] [bhashsize:N] [agstride:N] [logdev:..] [rtdev:..]

Repair corrupt or damaged XFS filesystem on device.

The filesystem is specified using the device argument which should be the device name of the disk partition or volume containing the filesystem. If given the name of a block device, xfs_repair will attempt to find the raw device associated with the specified block device and will use the raw device instead.

Regardless, the filesystem to be repaired must be unmounted, otherwise, the resulting filesystem may be inconsistent or corrupt.

The returned status indicates whether filesystem corruption was detected (returns 1) or was not detected (returns 0).

This command has one or more optional arguments. See "OPTIONAL ARGUMENTS".

zegrep

 zegrep regex path

This calls the external zegrep program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

zegrepi

 zegrepi regex path

This calls the external zegrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

zero

 zero device

This command writes zeroes over the first few blocks of device.

How many blocks are zeroed isn't specified (but it's not enough to securely wipe the device). It should be sufficient to remove any partition tables, filesystem superblocks and so on.

If blocks are already zero, then this command avoids writing zeroes. This prevents the underlying device from becoming non-sparse or growing unnecessarily.

See also: "zero-device", "scrub-device", "is-zero-device"

zero-device

 zero-device device

This command writes zeroes over the entire device. Compare with "zero" which just zeroes the first few blocks of a device.

If blocks are already zero, then this command avoids writing zeroes. This prevents the underlying device from becoming non-sparse or growing unnecessarily.

zero-free-space

 zero-free-space directory

Zero the free space in the filesystem mounted on directory. The filesystem must be mounted read-write.

The filesystem contents are not affected, but any free space in the filesystem is freed.

Free space is not "trimmed". You may want to call "fstrim" either as an alternative to this, or after calling this, depending on your requirements.

zerofree

 zerofree device

This runs the zerofree program on device. This program claims to zero unused inodes and disk blocks on an ext2/3 filesystem, thus making it possible to compress the filesystem more effectively.

You should not run this program if the filesystem is mounted.

It is possible that using this program can damage the filesystem or data on the filesystem.

zfgrep

 zfgrep pattern path

This calls the external zfgrep program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

zfgrepi

 zfgrepi pattern path

This calls the external zfgrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

zfile

 zfile meth path

This command runs file after first decompressing path using method.

method must be one of gzip, compress or bzip2.

Since 1.0.63, use "file" instead which can now process compressed files.

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "file" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

zgrep

 zgrep regex path

This calls the external zgrep program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

zgrepi

 zgrepi regex path

This calls the external zgrep -i program and returns the matching lines.

Because of the message protocol, there is a transfer limit of somewhere between 2MB and 4MB. See "PROTOCOL LIMITS" in guestfs(3).

This function is deprecated. In new code, use the "grep" call instead.

Deprecated functions will not be removed from the API, but the fact that they are deprecated indicates that there are problems with correct use of these functions.

EXIT STATUS

guestfish returns 0 if the commands completed without error, or 1 if there was an error.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

EDITOR

The edit command uses $EDITOR as the editor. If not set, it uses vi.

FEBOOTSTRAP_KERNEL
FEBOOTSTRAP_MODULES

When using supermin ≥ 4.1.0, these have been renamed "SUPERMIN_KERNEL" and "SUPERMIN_MODULES".

GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE

The display command uses $GUESTFISH_DISPLAY_IMAGE to display images. If not set, it uses display(1).

GUESTFISH_INIT

Printed when guestfish starts. See "PROMPT".

GUESTFISH_OUTPUT

Printed before guestfish output. See "PROMPT".

GUESTFISH_PID

Used with the --remote option to specify the remote guestfish process to control. See section "REMOTE CONTROL GUESTFISH OVER A SOCKET".

GUESTFISH_PS1

Set the command prompt. See "PROMPT".

GUESTFISH_RESTORE

Printed before guestfish exits. See "PROMPT".

HEXEDITOR

The "hexedit" command uses $HEXEDITOR as the external hex editor. If not specified, the external hexedit(1) program is used.

HOME

If compiled with GNU readline support, various files in the home directory can be used. See "FILES".

LIBGUESTFS_APPEND

Pass additional options to the guest kernel.

LIBGUESTFS_ATTACH_METHOD

This is the old way to set LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND.

LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND

Choose the default way to create the appliance. See "guestfs_set_backend" in guestfs(3).

LIBGUESTFS_BACKEND_SETTINGS

A colon-separated list of backend-specific settings. See "BACKEND" in guestfs(3), "BACKEND SETTINGS" in guestfs(3).

LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR

The location where libguestfs will cache its appliance, when using a supermin appliance. The appliance is cached and shared between all handles which have the same effective user ID.

If LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR is not set, then TMPDIR is used. If TMPDIR is not set, then /var/tmp is used.

See also "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR", "set-cachedir".

LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG

Set LIBGUESTFS_DEBUG=1 to enable verbose messages. This has the same effect as using the -v option.

LIBGUESTFS_HV

Set the default hypervisor (usually qemu) binary that libguestfs uses. If not set, then the qemu which was found at compile time by the configure script is used.

LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE

Set the memory allocated to the qemu process, in megabytes. For example:

 LIBGUESTFS_MEMSIZE=700
LIBGUESTFS_PATH

Set the path that guestfish uses to search for kernel and initrd.img. See the discussion of paths in guestfs(3).

LIBGUESTFS_QEMU

This is the old way to set LIBGUESTFS_HV.

LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR

The location where libguestfs will store temporary files used by each handle.

If LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR is not set, then TMPDIR is used. If TMPDIR is not set, then /tmp is used.

See also "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR", "set-tmpdir".

LIBGUESTFS_TRACE

Set LIBGUESTFS_TRACE=1 to enable command traces.

PAGER

The more command uses $PAGER as the pager. If not set, it uses more.

PATH

Libguestfs and guestfish may run some external programs, and rely on $PATH being set to a reasonable value. If using the libvirt backend, libvirt will not work at all unless $PATH contains the path of qemu/KVM.

SUPERMIN_KERNEL
SUPERMIN_MODULES

These two environment variables allow the kernel that libguestfs uses in the appliance to be selected. If $SUPERMIN_KERNEL is not set, then the most recent host kernel is chosen. For more information about kernel selection, see supermin(1). This feature is only available in supermin / febootstrap ≥ 3.8.

TMPDIR

See "LIBGUESTFS_CACHEDIR", "LIBGUESTFS_TMPDIR".

FILES

$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/libguestfs/libguestfs-tools.conf
$HOME/.libguestfs-tools.rc
$XDG_CONFIG_DIRS/libguestfs/libguestfs-tools.conf
/etc/libguestfs-tools.conf

This configuration file controls the default read-only or read-write mode (--ro or --rw).

See libguestfs-tools.conf(5).

$HOME/.guestfish

If compiled with GNU readline support, then the command history is saved in this file.

$HOME/.inputrc
/etc/inputrc

If compiled with GNU readline support, then these files can be used to configure readline. For further information, please see "INITIALIZATION FILE" in readline(3).

To write rules which only apply to guestfish, use:

 $if guestfish
 ...
 $endif

Variables that you can set in inputrc that change the behaviour of guestfish in useful ways include:

completion-ignore-case (default: on)

By default, guestfish will ignore case when tab-completing paths on the disk. Use:

 set completion-ignore-case off

to make guestfish case sensitive.

test1.img
test2.img (etc)

When using the -N or --new option, the prepared disk or filesystem will be created in the file test1.img in the current directory. The second use of -N will use test2.img and so on. Any existing file with the same name will be overwritten. You can use a different filename by using the filename= prefix.

SEE ALSO

guestfs(3), http://libguestfs.org/, virt-alignment-scan(1), virt-builder(1), virt-cat(1), virt-copy-in(1), virt-copy-out(1), virt-customize(1), virt-df(1), virt-diff(1), virt-edit(1), virt-filesystems(1), virt-inspector(1), virt-list-filesystems(1), virt-list-partitions(1), virt-log(1), virt-ls(1), virt-make-fs(1), virt-p2v(1), virt-rescue(1), virt-resize(1), virt-sparsify(1), virt-sysprep(1), virt-tar(1), virt-tar-in(1), virt-tar-out(1), virt-v2v(1), virt-win-reg(1), libguestfs-tools.conf(5), display(1), hexedit(1), supermin(1).

AUTHORS

Richard W.M. Jones (rjones at redhat dot com)

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2009-2014 Red Hat Inc.

LICENSE

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

BUGS

To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

When reporting a bug, please supply: