NAME

virt-customize - Customize a virtual machine

SYNOPSIS

 virt-customize [--options] -d domname
    [--chmod PERMISSIONS:FILE] [--delete PATH] [--edit FILE:EXPR]
    [--firstboot SCRIPT] [--firstboot-command 'CMD+ARGS']
    [--firstboot-install PKG,PKG..] [--hostname HOSTNAME]
    [--install PKG,PKG..] [--link TARGET:LINK[:LINK..]] [--mkdir DIR]
    [--password USER:SELECTOR] [--root-password SELECTOR]
    [--run SCRIPT] [--run-command 'CMD+ARGS'] [--scrub FILE]
    [--timezone TIMEZONE] [--update] [--upload FILE:DEST]
    [--write FILE:CONTENT] [--no-logfile]
    [--password-crypto md5|sha256|sha512] [--selinux-relabel]


 virt-customize [--options] -a disk.img [-a disk.img ...]
    [--chmod PERMISSIONS:FILE] [--delete PATH] [--edit FILE:EXPR]
    [--firstboot SCRIPT] [--firstboot-command 'CMD+ARGS']
    [--firstboot-install PKG,PKG..] [--hostname HOSTNAME]
    [--install PKG,PKG..] [--link TARGET:LINK[:LINK..]] [--mkdir DIR]
    [--password USER:SELECTOR] [--root-password SELECTOR]
    [--run SCRIPT] [--run-command 'CMD+ARGS'] [--scrub FILE]
    [--timezone TIMEZONE] [--update] [--upload FILE:DEST]
    [--write FILE:CONTENT] [--no-logfile]
    [--password-crypto md5|sha256|sha512] [--selinux-relabel]

DESCRIPTION

Virt-customize can customize a virtual machine (disk image) by installing packages, editing configuration files, and so on.

Virt-customize modifies the guest or disk image in place. The guest must be shut down. If you want to preserve the existing contents of the guest, you must snapshot, copy or clone the disk first.

You do not need to run virt-customize as root. In fact we'd generally recommend that you don't.

Related tools include: virt-sysprep(1) and virt-builder(1).

OPTIONS

--help

Display brief help.

-a file
--add file

Add file which should be a disk image from a virtual machine.

The format of the disk image is auto-detected. To override this and force a particular format use the --format option.

-a URI
--add URI

Add a remote disk. The URI format is compatible with guestfish. See "ADDING REMOTE STORAGE" in guestfish(1).

--attach ISOFILE

The given disk is attached to the libguestfs appliance. This is used to provide extra software repositories or other data for customization.

You probably want to ensure the volume(s) or filesystems in the attached disks are labelled (or use an ISO volume name) so that you can mount them by label in your run-scripts:

 mkdir /tmp/mount
 mount LABEL=EXTRA /tmp/mount

You can have multiple --attach options, and the format can be any disk format (not just an ISO).

--attach-format FORMAT

Specify the disk format for the next --attach option. The FORMAT is usually raw or qcow2. Use raw for ISOs.

-c URI
--connect URI

If using libvirt, connect to the given URI. If omitted, then we connect to the default libvirt hypervisor.

If you specify guest block devices directly (-a), then libvirt is not used at all.

-d guest
--domain guest

Add all the disks from the named libvirt guest. Domain UUIDs can be used instead of names.

-n
--dry-run

Perform a read-only "dry run" on the guest. This runs the sysprep operation, but throws away any changes to the disk at the end.

--format raw|qcow2|..
--format auto

The default for the -a option is to auto-detect the format of the disk image. Using this forces the disk format for -a options which follow on the command line. Using --format auto switches back to auto-detection for subsequent -a options.

For example:

 virt-customize --format raw -a disk.img

forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img.

 virt-customize --format raw -a disk.img --format auto -a another.img

forces raw format (no auto-detection) for disk.img and reverts to auto-detection for another.img.

If you have untrusted raw-format guest disk images, you should use this option to specify the disk format. This avoids a possible security problem with malicious guests (CVE-2010-3851).

-m MB
--memsize MB

Change the amount of memory allocated to --run scripts. Increase this if you find that --run scripts or the --install option are running out of memory.

The default can be found with this command:

 guestfish get-memsize
--network
--no-network

Enable or disable network access from the guest during the installation.

Enabled is the default. Use --no-network to disable access.

The network only allows outgoing connections and has other minor limitations. See "NETWORK" in virt-rescue(1).

If you use --no-network then certain other options such as --install will not work.

This does not affect whether the guest can access the network once it has been booted, because that is controlled by your hypervisor or cloud environment and has nothing to do with virt-customize.

Generally speaking you should not use --no-network. But here are some reasons why you might want to:

  1. Because the libguestfs backend that you are using doesn't support the network. (See: "BACKEND" in guestfs(3)).

  2. Any software you need to install comes from an attached ISO, so you don't need the network.

  3. You don't want untrusted guest code trying to access your host network when running virt-customize. This is particularly an issue when you don't trust the source of the operating system templates. (See "SECURITY" below).

  4. You don't have a host network (eg. in secure/restricted environments).

-q
--quiet

Don't print log messages.

To enable detailed logging of individual file operations, use -x.

--smp N

Enable N ≥ 2 virtual CPUs for --run scripts to use.

-v
--verbose

Enable verbose messages for debugging.

-V
--version

Display version number and exit.

-x

Enable tracing of libguestfs API calls.

Customization options

--chmod PERMISSIONS:FILE

Change the permissions of FILE to PERMISSIONS.

Note: PERMISSIONS by default would be decimal, unless you prefix it with 0 to get octal, ie. use 0700 not 700.

--delete PATH

Delete a file from the guest. Or delete a directory (and all its contents, recursively).

See also: --upload, --scrub.

--edit FILE:EXPR

Edit FILE using the Perl expression EXPR.

Be careful to properly quote the expression to prevent it from being altered by the shell.

Note that this option is only available when Perl 5 is installed.

See "NON-INTERACTIVE EDITING" in virt-edit(1).

--firstboot SCRIPT

Install SCRIPT inside the guest, so that when the guest first boots up, the script runs (as root, late in the boot process).

The script is automatically chmod +x after installation in the guest.

The alternative version --firstboot-command is the same, but it conveniently wraps the command up in a single line script for you.

You can have multiple --firstboot options. They run in the same order that they appear on the command line.

See also --run.

--firstboot-command 'CMD+ARGS'

Run command (and arguments) inside the guest when the guest first boots up (as root, late in the boot process).

You can have multiple --firstboot options. They run in the same order that they appear on the command line.

See also --run.

--firstboot-install PKG,PKG..

Install the named packages (a comma-separated list). These are installed when the guest first boots using the guest's package manager (eg. apt, yum, etc.) and the guest's network connection.

For an overview on the different ways to install packages, see "INSTALLING PACKAGES" in virt-builder(1).

--hostname HOSTNAME

Set the hostname of the guest to HOSTNAME. You can use a dotted hostname.domainname (FQDN) if you want.

--install PKG,PKG..

Install the named packages (a comma-separated list). These are installed during the image build using the guest's package manager (eg. apt, yum, etc.) and the host's network connection.

For an overview on the different ways to install packages, see "INSTALLING PACKAGES" in virt-builder(1).

See also --update.

--link TARGET:LINK[:LINK..]

Create symbolic link(s) in the guest, starting at LINK and pointing at TARGET.

--mkdir DIR

Create a directory in the guest.

This uses mkdir -p so any intermediate directories are created, and it also works if the directory already exists.

--no-logfile

Scrub builder.log (log file from build commands) from the image after building is complete. If you don't want to reveal precisely how the image was built, use this option.

See also: "LOG FILE".

--password USER:SELECTOR

Set the password for USER. (Note this option does not create the user account).

See "USERS AND PASSWORDS" in virt-builder(1) for the format of the SELECTOR field, and also how to set up user accounts.

--password-crypto md5|sha256|sha512

When the virt tools change or set a password in the guest, this option sets the password encryption of that password to md5, sha256 or sha512.

sha256 and sha512 require glibc ≥ 2.7 (check crypt(3) inside the guest).

md5 will work with relatively old Linux guests (eg. RHEL 3), but is not secure against modern attacks.

The default is sha512 unless libguestfs detects an old guest that didn't have support for SHA-512, in which case it will use md5. You can override libguestfs by specifying this option.

Note this does not change the default password encryption used by the guest when you create new user accounts inside the guest. If you want to do that, then you should use the --edit option to modify /etc/sysconfig/authconfig (Fedora, RHEL) or /etc/pam.d/common-password (Debian, Ubuntu).

--root-password SELECTOR

Set the root password.

See "USERS AND PASSWORDS" in virt-builder(1) for the format of the SELECTOR field, and also how to set up user accounts.

Note: In virt-builder, if you don't set --root-password then the guest is given a random root password.

--run SCRIPT

Run the shell script (or any program) called SCRIPT on the disk image. The script runs virtualized inside a small appliance, chrooted into the guest filesystem.

The script is automatically chmod +x.

If libguestfs supports it then a limited network connection is available but it only allows outgoing network connections. You can also attach data disks (eg. ISO files) as another way to provide data (eg. software packages) to the script without needing a network connection (--attach). You can also upload data files (--upload).

You can have multiple --run options. They run in the same order that they appear on the command line.

See also: --firstboot, --attach, --upload.

--run-command 'CMD+ARGS'

Run the command and arguments on the disk image. The command runs virtualized inside a small appliance, chrooted into the guest filesystem.

If libguestfs supports it then a limited network connection is available but it only allows outgoing network connections. You can also attach data disks (eg. ISO files) as another way to provide data (eg. software packages) to the script without needing a network connection (--attach). You can also upload data files (--upload).

You can have multiple --run-command options. They run in the same order that they appear on the command line.

See also: --firstboot, --attach, --upload.

--scrub FILE

Scrub a file from the guest. This is like --delete except that:

--selinux-relabel

Relabel files in the guest so that they have the correct SELinux label.

You should only use this option for guests which support SELinux.

--timezone TIMEZONE

Set the default timezone of the guest to TIMEZONE. Use a location string like Europe/London

--update

Do the equivalent of yum update, apt-get upgrade, or whatever command is required to update the packages already installed in the template to their latest versions.

See also --install.

--upload FILE:DEST

Upload local file FILE to destination DEST in the disk image. File owner and permissions from the original are preserved, so you should set them to what you want them to be in the disk image.

DEST could be the final filename. This can be used to rename the file on upload.

If DEST is a directory name (which must already exist in the guest) then the file is uploaded into that directory, and it keeps the same name as on the local filesystem.

See also: --mkdir, --delete, --scrub.

--write FILE:CONTENT

Write CONTENT to FILE.

EXIT STATUS

This program returns 0 on success, or 1 if there was an error.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

VIRT_TOOLS_DATA_DIR

This can point to the directory containing data files used for Windows firstboot installation.

Normally you do not need to set this. If not set, a compiled-in default will be used (something like /usr/share/virt-tools).

This directory may contain the following files:

rhsrvany.exe

This is the RHSrvAny Windows binary, used to install a "firstboot" script in Windows guests. It is required if you intend to use the --firstboot or --firstboot-command options with Windows guests.

See also: https://github.com/rwmjones/rhsrvany

For other environment variables, see "ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES" in guestfs(3).

SEE ALSO

guestfs(3), guestfish(1), virt-builder(1), virt-clone(1), virt-rescue(1), virt-resize(1), virt-sparsify(1), virt-sysprep(1), virsh(1), lvcreate(8), qemu-img(1), scrub(1), http://libguestfs.org/, http://libvirt.org/.

AUTHORS

Richard W.M. Jones http://people.redhat.com/~rjones/

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (C) 2011-2014 Red Hat Inc.

LICENSE

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.

BUGS

To get a list of bugs against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/buglist.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

To report a new bug against libguestfs, use this link: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/enter_bug.cgi?component=libguestfs&product=Virtualization+Tools

When reporting a bug, please supply: